Flashcards in Capital Budgeting Deck (30):

1

## What is Capital Budgeting? How is it used?

###
Managerial Accounting technique used to evaluate different investment options

Helps management make decisions

Uses both accounting and non-accounting information Internal focus, GAAP is not mandatory

2

## What values are used in Capital Budgeting?

### Capital Budgeting ONLY uses Present Value tables. Capital Budgeting NEVER uses Fair Value.

3

## When is the Present Value of $1 table used?

### For ONE payment ONE time.

4

## When is the Present Value of an Annuity Due used?

### Multiple payments made over time where the payments are made at the START of the period.

5

## When is the Present Value of an Ordinary Annuity of $1 (PVOA) used?

### Multiple payments over time where payments are made at the END of the period. Think A for Arrears.

6

## What is the calculation for the Present Value of $1?

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1 / (( 1+i )^n)

i = interest rate

n = number of periods

7

## What is Net Present Value (NPV)? How is it calculated?

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A preferred method of evaluating profitability.

One of two methods that use the Time Value of Money

NPV = PV of Future Cash Flows - Investment

8

## How is NPV used to calculate future benefit?

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NPV = PV Future Cash Flows - Investment

If NPV is Negative, Cost is greater than benefits (bad investment)

If NPV is Positive, Cost is less than benefit (good investment)

If NPV = 0, Cost = Benefit (Management is indifferent)

9

## What is the rate of return on an investment called?

### The Discount Rate.

10

## What does the Discount Rate represent?

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The rate of return on an investment used.

It represents the minimum rate of return required.

11

## What are the strengths of the Net Present Value system?

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Uses Time Value of Money

Uses all cash flows, not just the cash flows to arrive at Payback

Considers Risk

12

## What are the weaknesses of the Net Present Value system?

### Not as simple as the Accounting Rate of Return.

13

## How do Salvage Value and Depreciation affect Net Present Value?

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NPV includes Salvage Value because it is a future cash inflow.

NPV does NOT include depreciation because it is non-cash.

Exception – If a CPA Exam question says to include tax considerations, then you have to include depreciation because of income tax savings generated by depreciation.

14

## If multiple potential rates of return are available, which is used to calculate Net Present Value?

### The minimum rate of return is used.

15

## What is the Internal Rate of Return (IRR)? How is it calculated?

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It calculates a project's actual rate of return through the project's expected cash flows.

IRR is the rate of return required for PV of future cash flows to EQUAL the investment.

Investment / After Tax Annual Cash Inflow = PV Factor

16

## Which rate of return is used to re-invest cash flows for Internal Rate of Return?

### Cash flows are re-invested at the rate of return earned by the original investment.

17

## How does the rate used for Internal Rate of Return (IRR) compare to that used for Net Present Value (NPV)?

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Rate of return for IRR is the rate earned by the investment.

Rate of return for NPV is the minimum rate.

18

## What are the strengths and weaknesses of the Internal Rate of Return system?

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Strengths: Uses Time Value of Money, Cash Flow emphasis

Weakness: Uneven cash flows lead to varied IRR

19

## When is NPV on an Investment positive?

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When the benefits are greater than the costs.

IRR is greater than the Discount Rate

20

## When is NPV on an Investment Negative?

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When Costs are greater than Benefits

IRR is less than the Discount Rate

21

## When is NPV Zero?

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Benefits = Costs

IRR = Discount Rate

22

## What is the Payback Method? How is it calculated?

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It measures an investment in terms of how long it takes to recoup the initial investment via Annual Cash Inflow

Investment / Annual Cash Inflow = Payback Method

Compare to a targeted timeframe; if payback is shorter than target, it's a good investment. If payback is longer than target, it's a bad investment.

23

## What are the strengths of the Payback Method?

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Considers Risk

2-Year Payback less Risky than 5 years

24

## What are the weaknesses of the payback method?

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Ignores the Time Value of Money

Ignores cash flow after the initial investment is paid back

Exception: Discount payback method

25

## What is the Accounting Rate of Return?

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An approximate rate of return on assets

ARR = Net Income / Average Investment

Compare to a targeted return rate; if ARR greater than target, good investment. If ARR less than target, bad investment.

26

## What are the strengths of the Accounting Rate of Return (ARR)?

### Simple to use People understand easily

27

## What are the weaknesses of the Accounting Rate of Return (ARR)?

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Can be skewed based on Depreciation method that is used.

Ignores the Time Value of Money.

28

## What is an Expected Return?

### An approximate rate of return on assets.

29

## What is Throughput Analysis?

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It is the most complicated form of capital budgeting analysis, but most accurate

The entire company is considered a single, profit-generating system.

Assumes all costs are operating expenses

Maximize the throughput of the entire system to pay for expenses, and to maximize profits is to maximize the throughput passing through a bottleneck operation.

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