Flashcards in Capitulo Trece - Gramatica (todo) - The Perfect Tense Deck (21)
What is the perfect tense?
The perfect tense is a way to talk about actions that have already been completed.
- The present perfect is used like the preterite, but is typically referring to something with greater immediacy or something that bears on the present time (as opposed to a past, completed action like the preterite).
He hablado con el jefe.
I have spoken with the boss.
- The past perfect tense is used to described actions that occurred before events in the past.
Ya había escrito el informe cuando la jefa me lo pidió.
I had already written the report when the boss asked me for it.
- The present perfect subjunctive is used similarly to the present subjunctive. The difference is that you are using the present perfect subjunctive in a past-tense context, rather than present tense. The present perfect subjunctive, like the present perfect indicative, describes actions that have recently occurred or are bearing on the present.
Me alegro de que hayas conseguido el puesto!
I'm happy that you have gotten the job!
Dudo que hayan terminado el proyecto.
I doubt that they have finished the project.
Es bueno que él haya estudiado los informes antes de la reunion.
How are the perfect tenses formed?
- All perfect constructions (present perfect, past perfect, and present perfect subjunctive) are formed by combining the auxiliary verb "haber" with a past participle of a second verb. The only differences that occur in this conjugation are in "haber"
- In the present perfect, haber is conjugated into the *present* tense. In the past perfect, it is conjugated into the *imperfect.* In the present perfect subjunctive, it is conjugated into present subjunctive.
How do you form a past participle?
You form the past participle by removing the -ar, -er, and -ir endings from the verb and adding the following endings:
trabajar -> trabajado
er and ir: -ido
conocer -> conocido
*Remember that the past participles remain the same through the perfect tenses, it is only the auxiliary verb "haber" that conjugates.
What tense of "haber" is used for the present perfect tense? List its conjugations.
The present tense form of haber is used:
What tense of "haber" is used for the past perfect tense? List its conjugations.
The imperfect tense form of haber is used:
What tense of "haber" is used for the present perfect subjunctive tense? List its conjugations.
The present subjunctive form of haber is used:
What is the past participial form of abrir?
What is the past participial form of decir?
What is the past participial form of escribir?
What is the past participial form of hacer?
What is the past participial form of morir?
What is the past participial form of poner?
What is the past participial form of romper?
What is the past participial form of satisfacer?
What is the past participial form of ver?
What is the past participial form of volver?
When an a, e, or o precedes the "i" in -ido, what do you do to fix pronunciation?
You place an accent on the "i."
When the past participle of a reflexive verb is formed, what do you do with the reflexive pronoun?
The reflexive pronoun goes *before* the auxiliary verb haber:
Ya me he preparado (prepararse) para la reunión.
I have already prepared myself for the meeting.
Conjugate the verb "compartir" into the past participle and then construct a sentence using it in the three perfect tenses:
compartir -> compartido
- Ella ha compartido este con el jefe.
She shared this with the boss.
- Ella ya había compartido este con el jefe cuando llegaron.
She had already shared this with the boss when they arrived.
- Es bueno que ella haya compartido este con el jefe.
It's good that she shared this with the boss.
Conjugate the verb "hablar" into the past participle and then construct a sentence using it in the three perfect tenses:
hablar -> hablado
- Yo he hablado con mi madre.
I have spoken with my mom.
- Ya había hablado con mi madre cuando ella llegó.
I had already spoken with my mom when she arrived.
- Dudo que ella haya hablado con mi madre.
I doubt she has spoken with my mom.