Carbohydrates Flashcards Preview

Biochemistry > Carbohydrates > Flashcards

Flashcards in Carbohydrates Deck (105):
1

Carbohydrates with aldehydes

Polyhydroxyaldehydes

2

Simple sugars containing one saccharide group

Monosaccharide

3

Carbohydrates with ketones

Polyhydroxyketones

4

Horizontal sugar structures

Fischer Projection

5

Cyclic sugar structures

Hayworth and Bent

6

More realistic depiction of the conformational structure of sugars

Bent forms/ Chair and Boat configuration

7

The molecules are shown in a way that the bonds nearest the viewer are bold and thickened, and the hydroxyl groups are above or below the plane of the ring

Hayworth projection

8

Six membered ring consisting of 5 carbons and one oxygen

Pyranose

9

Five membered ring with 4 carbons and 1 oxygen

Furanose

10

Same functional group and connectivity, but differ in arrangement and bonds in space

Stereoisomers

11

Stereoisomers that are mirror images

D or L isomer / Enantiomers

12

Stereoisomers that are not mirror images

Diastereomers

13

Diastereomers that differ only one specific carbon atom other that the penultimate carbon and the carbonyl carbon

Epimers

14

Monosaccharides that differ in configuration only around the carbonyl carbon

Alpha or Beta isomer / Anomers

15

Hydroxyl group is on the right side(fischer projection) or shown pointing downward( hayworth )

Alpha form

16

Hydroxyl group attached to the carbonyl carbon on the left side and upward

Beta form

17

Ability to rotate plane polarized light to the right or left

Optical activity

18

Rotates plane polarized light to the right

Dextrorotatory d or +

19

Rotates plane polarized light to the right

Levorotatory l or -

20

Measures angle of rotation

Polarimeter

21

Equimolar mixture of optical isomers has no net rotation

Racemic

22

Results from spontaneous change of alpha to beta forms

Mutarotation

23

If the hydroxyl group on the anomeroc carbon of a cyclized sugar is not linked to anothe compound the ring could open and act as a

Reducing agent

24

The functional group replace the hydroxyl group usually at C2 and C6 of Dglucose

Glucose Family

25

Amino sugar important in the formation of lipids and proteins
Forms chitin in exoskeletons of insects and cell walls of plants

Glucosamine

26

Used commoly for osteoarthritis

Glucosamine

27

Part of 2 metabolic pathways Glycolysis and Pentose phosphate pathway

Glucose 6 Phosphate

28

Can be converted to glycogen or starch for storage in liver or muscles

Glucose 6 Phosphate

29

Essential for optimal health and function in the body
Found in multiple glands

N Acetyl Glucosamine (GlcNac)

30

Found in peptidoglycans of bacterial cell walls

N Acetylmuramic Acid ( MurNac)

31

Aids in cell communication, immune system, cartilage formation, and nerve function

N Acetyl Glucosamine (GlcNac)

32

Product of N Acetyl Glucosamine (GlcNac) that has been condensed with lactic acid.

N acetylmuramic acid ( MurNac )

33

In bacteria, ______ adds the lactyl group to C3 of N acetylglucoasamine

Phosphoenolpyruvate

34

Acidic sugar in plants, honey, fruits
Prepared through fermentation of glucose

Gluconate

35

Highly polar molecule used to increase solubility of some drugs
Incorporated inti proteoglycans

Glucoronate or Glucoronic acid

36

Used in alkylating agents for fluid therapy
Can be used i cleaning products when combined with calcium because it dissolves mineral deposits

Gluconate

37

Structure similar to glucose except that the 6th carbon is oxidized to a carboxylic acid. The salt and ester form is known as what

Glucoronate

38

Can form a gel to treat burns caused by hydrofluoric acid

Gluconate

39

Sugars with amine group (NH2) at c2 instead of a hydroxyl group

Amino Sugars

40

Are usually components of Antibiotics

Amino sugars: glucosamine, N acetyl glucosamine

41

Hexosamine derived from galactose
One of the 8 essential amino acids and a constituent of some glycoprotein hormones such as FSH and LH
Sources: cattle, oxen, red algae, shark meat
Hepatotoxic

Galactosamine

42

Very important sugar amine, however may allow different viruses to enter
N- O- substituted derivative of neuraminic acid ( derivative of ketononose)

Sialic acid / N Acetylneuraminic acid ( Neu5Ac )

43

Sugars that have had a hydroxyl group replaced by a hydrogen atom
Fucose and Rhamnose

Deoxysugars

44

The commonly known deoxy sugar
DNA backbone, more stable than ribose, doesn't contain the hydroxyl carbon at C2 making it less susceptible to h bonding with other molecule

Deoxyribose

45

Monosaccharides with a carboxyl group (-COOH)

Sugar acids or Acidic Sugars

46

The aldehyde functional group of an aldose is oxidized
Gluconic acid, Ascorbic acid

Aldonic acid

47

The first hydroxyl group of a 2-ketose is oxidized creating an alpha keto acid
Neuraminic acid

Ulosonic acid

48

The terminal hydroxyl group of an aldose or ketose is oxidized
Glucoronic acid, Iduronic acid

Uronic acid

49

Both ends of an aldose is oxidized
Tartaric acid, Mucic acid, Saccharic acid

Aldaric acid

50

Sugars containing a hydroxyl group in place of a carbonyl group
Xylitol, Erythriol

Sugar alcohols

51

Sugar alcohol derived from mannose
Used medically as an osmotic diuretic to reduce cerebral edema

Mannitol

52

Sugar alcohol derived from glucose. In lenses of diabetics and produces cataracts

Sorbitol

53

Sugars that contain a phosphate group( added or substituted )
Glucose 6 Phosphate, Ribose 5 Phosphate

Sugar Phosphate

54

Consists of two monosaccharides combined together with the elimination of a water molecules ( Condensation or Dehydration reaction )

Disaccharides

55

Type of covalent bond that joins a carbohydrate group with another group which may or may not be a carbohydrate

Glycosidic Bond

56

Substance containing a glycosidic bond
Link formed could be a S, N, O glycosidic bond

Glycoside

57

Anomeric hydroxyl group involved is in the alpha configuration (pointing down)

Alpha bond

58

Anomeric hydroxyl group beta configuration (pointing up)

Beta bond

59

Type of disaccharide with one monosaccharide still has a free anomeric hydroxyl group (hemiacetal unit)

Reducing disaccharide

60

Main sugar in milk
consists of beta galactose with a beta 1, 4 linkage to glucose

Lactose

61

Found in legumes
Composed of 2 alpha D glucose molecules
produced during gastrointestinal starch digestion

Maltose

62

Components bond through an acetal linkage between their anomeric centers and neither monosaccharide has a free hemiacetal unit

Non reducing disccharides

63

Common table sugar

Sucrose

64

The alpha anomeric carbon 1 of glucose joins the beta anomeric carbon 2 of fructose

Sucrose

65

Sweetest sugar

Fructose

66

Reference standard of sweetness

Sucrose

67

Composed of more than 10 monosaccharides
All are considered non reducing sugars ( with free aldehyde group )

Polysaccharides

68

If they have only one type of monosaccharide unit

Homopolysaccharide

69

Major form of storage carbohydrate in plants
Polymer of alpha D glucose

Starch

70

Starch is composed of which two substances

Amylose
Amylopectin

71

Essentially linear polysaccharides
200-20000 glucose units connected by alpha 1,4 glycosidic linkages which forms a helix
10-20% found in starch of plants in this form

Amylose

72

Color of starch in iodine test

Deep blue purple

73

Highly branched polysaccharide
Long chains of glucose connected by alpha 1,4 glycosidic linkage with alpha 1,6 branches every 24 to 30 glucose units along the chain
80-90% starch occur in this form

Amylopectin

74

Percent of amylose in starch

10-20%

75

Percent of amylopectin in starch

80-90%

76

Animal starch

Glycogen

77

Structural polysaccharide
found in plant cell walls that provides strength and rigidity

Cellulose

78

Storage form of glucose in animal tissues made through glycogenesis

Glycogen

79

Important industrially for wood, paper, cotton

Cellulose

80

Found abundantly stored in the liver and muscle

Glycogen

81

Protein that acts as a primer at the core of the structure

Glycogenin

82

Polymers consisting of fructose units typically with a terminal glucose unit
Found in tubers and roots of dahlias, dandelions, and artichokes

Inulin (fructans)

83

Structural polysaccharide consisting of unbranched polymer of N acetyl D glucosamine joined by beta 1,4 glycosidic bond

Chitin

84

It is not hydrolyzed by intestinal enzymes but is readily soluble in water and is used to detrmine glomerular filtration rate

Inulin (fructans)

85

It is found in fungi( mushroom ) and is the principal component of exoskeletons of crustaceans and insects

Chitin

86

May be considered a derivative of cellulose, where the hydroxyl groups of the second carbon of each glucose unit is replaced with acetamido groups( -NH(C=O)CH3)

Chitin

87

More than one type of monosaccharide is present
Usually associated with proteins forming proteoglycans or glycoproteins

Heteropolysaccharides

88

Carbohydrate portion of glycoprotein

Glycosaminoglycan

89

Polymer of glucoronate
It acts as lubricants in the synovial fluid of joints, gives consistency to vitreous humor, and contributes to tensile strength and elasticity of cartilage and tendons

Hyaluronic acid ( Hyaluronate )

90

Polymer if glucoronate andGalNac4 or 6 sulfate in beta 1,3 link
Contributes to tensile strength and elasticity of cartilage ligaments tendons and walls of aorta

Chondrotoin sulfate

91

Polymer of L-iduronate and GalNac 4 sulfate in a beta 1,3 link
Formed mainly in the skin but also in vessels, heart, lungs

Dermatan sulfates

92

Composed of Gal nad GkcNac 5 sulfate in a beta 1-0,4 link
Present in the cornea, cartilage, hair, nails

Keratan sulfate

93

Composed if D glucoronate 2 sulfate / L idoronate 2 sulfate and GlcNSulfo 6 sulfate in an alpha 1,4 link
Found in mast ceoos and commonly administered as an anticoagulant

Heparin

94

Carbohydrate content is less than 10%

Glycoprotein

95

Carbohydrate content is more than 10%

Mucoprotein

96

Carbohydrates are covalently attached to hydroxyl side chains of serine, threonine, hydroxylysine residues
Usually N acetylgalactosamine
Mannose, Galactose, Xylose

O linked

97

Carbohydrates are linked to polypeptides via the side chain amide nitrogenof asparagine residues

N linked

98

Are found in cell surface glycoproteins and in mucins

O linked saccharides

99

Glycoproteins that coat and protect mucous membranes in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts

Mucins

100

Always have a unique core structure composed of two acetyl glucosamine residues linked to a branched mannose triad
Other sugars may be attached to the mannose residues in this core

N linked

101

Are found in many proteins including immunoglobulins
, ovalbumin, peptide hormones

N linked oligosaccharides

102

Subclass of glycoproteins in which carbohydrate units are polysaccharides that contain amino sugars ( Glycosaminoglycans )

Proteoglycans

103

Typically glycosaminoglycan units are ____ linked to serine

O

104

Proteoglycans appear to be either________ proteins or _________ proteins

Extracellular matrix or Integral transmembrane

105

Glycoconjugates found only in Bacterial Cell Walls

Peptidoglycans / Mureins