Carbohydrates Flashcards Preview

Biology OCR (3, biological molecules) > Carbohydrates > Flashcards

Flashcards in Carbohydrates Deck (56)
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1

What elements do a carbohydrate contain?

  • Carbon
  • Hydrogen
  • Oxygen

2

What does the word carbohydrate literally mean?

'Hydrated carbon'

3

What is the general formula for carbohydrates?

Cx(H20)Y

4

What are carbohydrates also known as?

Saccharides Sugars

5

What is a single sugar unit known as (the building block)?

monosaccharide

6

What are some examples of monosacharides?

Glucose, Fructose, ribose and galactose

7

What is the name of the product formed when two monosacharides join together?

Polysaccharide

8

What are some examples of polysacharides?

Glycogen, Cellulose, starch and chitin

9

What is the chemical formula for glucose?

C6H12O6

10

Glucose contains six carbon atoms and therefore it is a.....

hexose monosaccharide (hexose sugar)

11

What are the names of the two structural variations of the glucose molecules?

Beta glucose and Alpha glucose

12

What is the structural difference between beta glucose and alpha glucose?

The hydroxyl group is in a different position

13

What is the group name for OH?

hydroxyl group

14

Draw the structure of alpha glucose

15

Draw the structure for beta glucose

16

Are glucose molecules soluble in water?

Yes, because they are polar molecules

17

How is the glucose molecule soluble in water?

Hydrogen bonds form between the hydroxyl group on the glucose molecule and the water molecule.

18

Why is it important that glucose is soluble in water?

It means that glucose is able to dissolve in the cytoplasmof cells

19

Draw a diagram of two glucose molecules undergoing a condensation reaction

20

What part of the glucose molecule reacts during a condensation reaction?

The hydroxyl group

21

What is the name of the reaction when two glucose molecules join together to form a new molecule?

A condensation reaction

22

Where on the glucose molecules does the new bonds form?

On carbons 1 and 4

23

What other molecule is produced during a condensation reaction?

Water

24

What is the name of the covalent bond formed between the two glucose molecules?

1,4 Glycocidic bond

25

What is a disaccharide?

A molecule made up of two monosaccharides

26

What is the name of the disaccharide made from two glucose monsaccharides?

Maltose

27

What are 3 types of hexose monosaccharides?

glucose, fructose and galactose

28

Where does fructose naturally occur?

In fruit

29

What is sucrose commonly known as?

sugar

30

What is formed when fructose and glucose combine?

sucrose