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Physical Diagnosis II > Cardiac > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiac Deck (26):
1

Pericardium

Double-walled fibrous sac that holds heart, great vessels and pericardial fluid. Protects and lubricates heart.

2

The great vessels include

Superior Vena Cava
Inferior Vena Cava
Pulmonary Artery
Pulmonary veins
Aorta

3

Preload

Initial stretching of the cardiac myocytes prior to contraction

4

Afterload

"Load" that heart must eject blood against.

5

Systole

Cardiac contraction.

6

Diastole

Cardiac relaxation. Chambers fill with blood. Diastole of atria precede that of ventricles.

7

S1

Produced by the closure of the mistral and tricuspid valves. Marks beginning of systole.

8

S2

Produced by the closure of the aortic and pulmonic valves. Marks end of systole.

9

S3

Passive filling of ventricles during diastole.

10

S4

Atrial contraction to expel remaining blood into ventricle.

11

S3 Gallop

Heart sound sometimes heard. Sound of ventricle making when it is forced to dilate beyond normal range due to volume overload.

12

S4 Gallop

Late diastole sound. "Atrial kick" as atrium work to expel last bit of blood into ventricle. Hear when ventricle is stiff and noncompliant.

13

Murmur

Abnormal or turbulent flow through a valve.

14

Thrill

Palpable murmur. Signifies turbulent flow. Associated with congenital and valvular abnormalities.

15

Heave/lift

Sustained palpable movements of localized area of precordium due to increased intensity of systolic contraction.

16

Heave

More pronounced lift

17

Lift

RV hypertrophy. Palpated lift.

18

Situs inversus/dextrocardia

Inversion/transposition of body viscera in which heart is on the right side of the body, and liver left.

19

Rub

Audible rub due to rubbing of opposing, inflamed serous surfaces (ex: pericarditis).

20

Click.

Classically heart with mitral valve prolapse. Heard during mid or late systole. Often accompanied with late systolic murmur indicative of mitral regurgitation.

21

Snap

Associated with aortic stenosis. AV valves are normally silent. With thickening or deformities of the leaflets, a sound is generated with opening of these valves.

22

Aortic focus (heart auscultation)

2nd R ICS.

23

Pulmonic focus (heart auscultation)

2nd left ICS.

24

Erb's point (heart auscultation)

Good for S2 sounds. 3rd left ICS.

25

Tricuspid (heart auscultation)

4th left ICS.

26

Mitral focus (heart auscultation)

Best for S1 sounds. 5th ICS @ midclavicular line