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Flashcards in cardiac Deck (13):
1

how do you determine whether a murmur is innocent?

10 S
systolic
small area
sitting-standing positional
symptomatic
short small
sternal depression
soft
special test ECG and CXR are normal

2

what would give you the indication of a pathological murmur?

pansystolic
intensity greater than 3
and location - upper left sternal edge
travels to the back
harsh quality
if there is an early or midsystolic click
abnormal second heart sound

3

what are the causes of heart failure?

infection- myocarditis
structural- cardiomyopathy
septal defect
coarctation
abnormal opening- large PDA
electrical- SVT

4

causes of HTN

cardiac- coarctation
renal- reflux nephropathy secondary to UTI
catecholamines excess- neuroblastoma or pheaochromcytoma

5

presenting with funny turns

arrhythmias= PR
QT prolongation
romano ward

6

recurrent chest infections

ASD
vSD

7

risk factors for congenital heart disease

chromosomal abnormalities
downs
turners
crit-du-chat
williams
noonans
IUInection - rubella
maternal diabetes and SLE
drugs- anticonvulsants or excess alcohol

8

heart disease in the older patient

congenital-
familial hypercholseterolemia
pompe disease
mucopolysacchaidoses
mar fans
helpers danlos
friedreich ataxia

9

investigations in a child with heart disease

FBC= iron defiecncy anemia polyceythemia WBC
UE= renal function HTN

arterial blood gas
hyperopia nitrogen washout test
CXR
ECG
ECHO
cardiac catherisation

10

blu baby !

ABC and call for senior help
establish IV access
prostaglandin
SE- hypotension, apnoea,convulsions
correct acidosis and electrolyte abnormalilities
keep warm
prevent hypoglycaemia

11

when would you give medical management

only if symptomatic
thiazides and spiralactone
ACE inh plus above
dopamine -if hypotensive

12

how would you manage the child with HF

feeding
monitoring
ventilation
surgery if severe with failure to thrive and pulmonary vascular disease

13

tetralogy of fallot

VSD
overriding aorta
subpulmonary stensis
right ventricular hypertrophy
boot shaped heart
cynaotic spells lead to squatting
ECG look at lead one pure R wave and upright T pulmonary HTN