Cardiac Anatomy Flashcards Preview

Echocardiography > Cardiac Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiac Anatomy Deck (96):
1

how many pulmonary arteries?

one, the pulmonary trunk (bifurcates into R/L)

2

how many pulmonary veins?

four

3

what type of tissue lines the pericardial cavity?

elastic connective tissue

4

which valves are considered systolic valves?

semilunar (aortic & pulmonary)

5

which valves are considered diastolic valves?

atrioventricular (mitral & tricuspid)

6

fibrous pericardium

outer layer of pericardium

7

serous pericardium

inner layer of pericardium

8

parietal layer of pericardium

lines the walls of the pericardial cavity

9

two layers of serous pericardium

parietal & visceral

10

visceral layer of pericardium

epicardium, lines the outer surface of the heart

11

Between which layers of pericardium does the pericardial cavity lie?

btwn the visceral and parietal layers of the serous pericardium

12

fossa ovalis

closed hole in the interatrial septum, btwn the septum primum & the septum secundum

13

Name the three cusps of the aortic valve

right coronary, left coronary, non-coronary

14

Name the three cusps of the pulmonic valve

anterior, left posterior, right posterior

15

Name the three leaflets of the triscupid valve

anterior, posterior, medial

16

Name the two leaflets of the mitral valve

anterior, posterior

17

normal finding at the junction of the IVC & right atrium

remnant of the eustachian valve

18

normal finding of a web-like network within the RA

Chiari network

19

area of lowest O2 saturation in the body

coronary sinus

20

valve located between the coronary sinus and the right atrium

thebesian valve

21

longest leaflet on the mitral valve

posterior

22

small nibs on the center of the free edge of each of the AoV cusps

nodules of Arantius

23

nodules of Arantius

small nibs on the center of the free edge of each of the AoV cusps

24

sinuses of Valsalva

pocket-like structures above the AoV cusps

25

fine, hair-like projections on some aortic cusps

Lambl's excrescences

26

Lambl's excrescenses

fine, hair-like projections on some aortic cusps

27

most common variant of coronary artery system

right dominant

28

Describe the right dominant coronary artery system

RCA gives rise to the posterior descending artery and posterolateral artery

29

Describe the left dominant coronary artery system

left circumflex artery gives rise to the posterior descending artery and posterolateral artery

30

Describe the co-dominant coronary artery system

RCA gives rise to the posterior descending artery, left circumflex artery gives rise to the posterolateral artery

31

RCA gives rise to the posterior descending artery, left circumflex artery gives rise to the posterolateral artery

co-dominant coronary artery system

32

left circumflex artery gives rise to the posterior descending artery and posterolateral artery

left dominant coronary artery system

33

RCA gives rise to the posterior descending artery and posterolateral artery

right dominant coronary artery system

34

aortic isthmus

area btwn the left subclavian artery and the ligamentum arteriosum

35

coronary artery system found in 85% of the population

right dominant

36

ligamentum arteriosum

ligament connecting descending aorta to superior aspect of the pulmonary artery

37

ductus arteriosus

connection btwn the aorta and pulmonary artery during fetal circulation

38

What fetal structure gives rise to the ligamentum arteriosum?

ductus arteriosus

39

What happens to the fetal ductus arteriosus after birth?

becomes the ligamentum arteriosum

40

location of the SA node

border of the SVC & RA

41

location of the AV node

floor of the RA

42

moderator band

thick band of muscle that spans the apex of the RV, arises obliquely from the anterior papillary muscle, contains the right bundle branch

43

infundibulum

neck of the RV, as it gives rise to the pulmonary artery, RVOT pathway

44

Which structure does the right coronary cusp of the AoV face?

right ventricle

45

Which structure does the left coronary cusp of the AoV face?

pulmonary artery

46

Which structure does the non-coronary cusp of the AoV face?

interatrial septum

47

coaptation zone

area where the leaflet tips overlap slightly when valve is closed

48

papillary muscles found in the LV

medial & lateral

49

papillary muscles found in the RV

anterior & posterior

50

broadest mitral valve leaflet

anterior

51

Which structure does the anterior cusp of the TV face?

anterior RV wall

52

Which structure does the posterior cusp of the TV face?

posterior RV wall

53

Which structure does the septal cusp of the TV face?

interventricular septum

54

Which TV leaflet faces the anterior RV wall?

anterior

55

Which TV leaflet faces the posterior RV wall?

posterior

56

Which TV leaflet faces the anterior RV wall?

septal

57

Which AoV cusp faces the RV?

right coronary

58

Which AoV cusp faces the pulmonic artery?

left coronary

59

Which AoV cusp faces the interatrial septum?

non-coronary

60

fetal structure that gave rise to the fossa ovalis

foramen ovale

61

What happens to the foramen ovale at birth?

closes over to become the fossa ovalis

62

two segments of the IV septum

membraneous & muscular

63

Which chamber of the heart lies furthest to the right?

right atrium

64

Which chamber of the heart lies most anterior?

right ventricle

65

Which chamber of the heart lies most posterior?

left atrium

66

Which chamber of the heart lies furthest to the left?

left ventricle

67

Which great vessel lies most anterior?

pulmonary artery

68

What structures run within the AV sulcus?

circumflex artery, right coronary artery (anteriorly), coronary sinus (posteriorly)

69

What structures run within the IV sulcus?

left anterior descending artery, great cardiac vein (anteriorly), posterior descending artery, middle cardiac vein (posteriorly)

70

Chiari network

normal finding of a web-like network within the RA

71

thebesian valve

valve located between the coronary sinus and the right atrium

72

eustachian valve

normal embryonic remnant found at the junction of the IVC & right atrium

73

Lambl's excrescences

fine, hair-like projections on some aortic cusps

74

major branches of the left coronary artery

left anterior descending, circumflex artery

75

coronary sinus

located in the posterior AV sulcus, drains blood from the cardiac veins into the right atrium

76

What causes the moon-shaped axial appearance of the RV?

the IV septum bows away from the LV - 6 times more pressure in the LV than in the RV

77

most common site of a ventricular septal defect

membranous septum

78

defect of the IV septum

ventricular septal defect

79

superioposterior portion of the IA septum

septum secundum

80

inferoanterior portion of the IA septum

septum primum

81

location of the septum secundum

superioposterior

82

location of the septum primum

inferoanterior

83

most common site of an atrial septal defect

septum secundum

84

causes striated appearance of cardiac cells

intercalated discs

85

part of cardiac cells that contain gap jxns

intercalated discs

86

role of intercalated discs in cardiac cells

contain gap jxns

87

role of gap jxns in cardiac cells

faciliate quick travel of electrical impulses

88

part of cardiac cells that facilitate quick travel of electrical impulses

gap jxns

89

cardiac cell type that initiates its own action potentials

Autorhythmic/Conduction cells

90

cardiac cell type that requires outside stimulation by an action potentials

contractile cells - may self-stimulate, but much slower to do so than autorhythmic cells

91

myofilament, aka

sarcomere

92

sarcomere, aka

myofilament

93

main components of a sarcomere

myosin and actin proteins

94

main components of a myofilament

myosin and actin proteins

95

location of SA node

superior RA near SVC insertion

96

location of AV node

superior to TV, right side of IAS, within AV sulcus