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Flashcards in Cardiac drugs Deck (12):
1

Ramipril:


Mechanism of Action
Indications
Adverse reactions
Dosage and administration

Mechanism of Action:
Open blood vessels making it easier for heart to pump blood to all parts of the body
Block some of the body’s harmful responses to heart disease, such as heart muscle damage.
ACE inhibitor

Indications:
High BP/Hypertension
Manage heart failure
Improve heart function after MI
Reduce the effect of diabetes on the heart.

Adverse reactions:
Light-headedness
Dizziness
Can cause orthostatic hypotension
Dry, irritating cough at night
Nausea (decreases over time)
Tiredness
Fatigue
Increased potassium in the blood

Dosage and administration:
Adult: capsule
• 1.25mg
• 2.5mg
• 5mg
• 10mg

2

Bisoprolol:

Mechanism of Action
Indications
Adverse reactions
Dosage and administration

Mechanism of Action:
Slows heartbeat
Blocks some of the body’s harmful responses to heart disease, such as muscle damage

Often prescribed with other meds to improve heart function
Beta Blocker

Indications:
High BP/Hypertension
Prevent angina
Improve heart function after MI
Manage heart failure
Regulate HR

Adverse reactions:
Tiredness
Dizziness
Increased breathlessness
Chest tightness or wheezing
Sleep disturbance
Vivid dreams
Cold hands & feet
A headache

Dosage and administration:
Adult: tablet
• 5mg
• 10mg

3

Aspirin:

Mechanism of Action
Indications
Adverse reactions
Dosage and administration

Mechanism of Action:
Makes the blood less sticky, therefore less likely to form clot and block an artery - Aspirin works to prevent heart attacks and strokes by reducing the production of thromboxane, a chemical that makes platelets sticky. When aspirin works as it should, platelets make less thromboxane and are less likely to form a blood clot that could block an artery.

Antiplatelet

Indications:
Prevent MI and CVA
Prevent blood clots after MI, heart stent or bypass - Aspirin is used to reduce fever and relieve mild to moderate pain

Adverse reactions:
Aspirin may cause stomach irritation
heartburn
indigestion
black, bloody, or tarry stools
coughing up blood or vomit that looks like coffee grounds
severe nausea, vomiting
stomach pain

Dosage and administration:
PO: 300 to 650 mg
Rectal:
300 to 600 mg rectally every 4 hours

4

Metoprolol:

Mechanism of Action
Indications
Adverse reactions
Dosage and administration

Mechanism of Action:
Blocks some of the body’s harmful responses to heart disease, such as muscle damage
Metoprolol is the generic form of the brand-name drug Lopressor, prescribed to treat high blood pressure and prevent angina (chest pain). It works by relaxing blood vessels and slowing heart rate, which improves blood flow and lowers blood pressure.
Often prescribed with other meds to improve heart function

Beta Blocker

Indications:
Metoprolol is used with or without other medications to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). Lowering high blood pressure helps prevent strokes, heart attacks, and kidney problems. This medication is also used to treat chest pain (angina) and to improve survival after a heart attack.

Adverse reactions:
Dizziness
Fatigue
confusion
memory problems
trouble sleeping
diarrhoea

Dosage and administration:
PO: 100 to 450 mg per day.

5

Verapamil:

Mechanism of Action
Indications
Adverse reactions
Dosage and administration

Mechanism of Action:
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
Verapamil inhibits voltage-dependent calcium channels. Specifically, its effect on L-type calcium channels in the heart causes a reduction in ionotropy and chronotropy, thus reducing heart rate and blood pressure. Verapamil's mechanism of effect in cluster headache is thought to be linked to its calcium-channel blocker effect, but which channel subtypes are involved is presently not known.

Indications:
For the treatment of hypertension, angina, and cluster headache prophylaxis.

Adverse reactions:
Dizziness,
slow heartbeat,
constipation,
nausea,
a headache,
tiredness,
skin rash or itching, or.
flushing (warmth, itching, redness, or tingly feeling under your skin).

Dosage and administration:
80mg-120mg

6

Clopidogrel:

Mechanism of Action
Indications
Adverse reactions
Dosage and administration

Mechanism of Action:
Clopidogrel works by blocking platelets from sticking together and prevents them from forming harmful clots.
Clopidogrel keeps your blood from coagulating (clotting) to prevent unwanted blood clots, it can also make it easier for you to bleed, even from a minor injury.
Antiplatelet

Indications:
To reduce the rate of MI and stroke in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome

Adverse reactions:
Sudden numbness or weakness, especially on one side of the body; sudden headache, confusion, problems with vision, speech, or balance; pale skin, weakness, fever

Dosage and administration:
PO: 75mg

7

Amlodipine:

Mechanism of Action
Indications
Adverse reactions
Dosage and administration

Mechanism of Action:
Open the blood vessels which lowers BP, Amlodipine is an angioselective calcium channel blocker and inhibits the movement of calcium ions into vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiac muscle cells which inhibits the contraction of cardiac muscle and vascular smooth muscle cells.

Calcium Channel Blocker

Indications:
Amlodipine is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure and chest pain (angina).

Adverse reactions:
Headache, Fatigue, Palpitations, Dizziness, Nausea, Flushing, Abdominal pain,

Dosage and administration:
PO: 2.5mg-10mg

8

Perindopril:

Mechanism of Action
Indications
Adverse reactions
Dosage and administration

Mechanism of Action:
Perindopril is a long-acting ACE inhibitor used to treat high blood pressure, heart failure, or stable coronary artery disease in form of perindopril arginine

Indications:
Hypertension, stable coronary artery disease (reduction of risk of cardiac events in patients with a history of myocardial infarction and/or revascularization) and treatment of symptomatic heart disease or heart failure.

Adverse reactions:
Dizziness,
Weakness,
Headaches,
upset stomach,
stomach pain,
diarrhea,
cough,
back pain,
low blood, pressure, which may make you feel dizzy or faint

Dosage and administration:
PO: 2mg-8mg

9

Carvedilol:

Mechanism of Action
Indications
Adverse reactions
Dosage and administration

Mechanism of Action:
Carvedilol is a beta-blocker. Beta-blockers affect the heart and circulation (blood flow through arteries and veins). Carvedilol is used to treat heart failure and hypertension (high blood pressure). It is also used after a heart attack that has caused your heart not to pump as well.

Beta-blocker.

Indications:
Mild to severe congestive heart failure (CHF), left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) following a heart attack in people who are otherwise stable, and for treating high blood pressure.

Adverse reactions:
Dizziness, drowsiness;
nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea;
dry eyes;
feeling weak or tired;
joint pain;
a cough

Dosage and administration:
PO: 6.25mg-25mg

10

Atenolol:

Mechanism of Action
Indications
Adverse reactions
Dosage and administration

Mechanism of Action:
It works by blocking the action of certain natural chemicals in your body, such as epinephrine, on the heart and blood vessels. This effect lowers the heart rate, blood pressure, and strain on the heart.

Indications:
High BP
Prevent angina
Improve heart function after MI
Manage heart failure
Regulate HR

Adverse reactions:
Tiredness
Dizziness
Increased breathlessness
Chest tightness or wheezing
Sleep disturbance
Vivid dreams
Cold hands & feet
Headache

Dosage and administration:
PO: 50g-100mg

11

Glyceryl Trinitrate:

Mechanism of Action
Indications
Adverse reactions
Dosage and administration

Mechanism of Action:
Opens up the blood vessels to allow more blood to flow through to the heart muscle. Nitrate preventers

Indications:
For the prevention of angina, medication used for heart failure, high blood pressure, and to treat and prevent chest pain

Adverse reactions:
Hypotension
Headache
Sedation
Nausea/vomiting
Blurred vision
Tachycardia

Dosage and administration:
300 microgram—1mg sublingually as required.
400 microgram per metered dose, 1 or 2 doses at onset of attack or before exertion- spray
PO: 2.5mg-9mg

12

Isosorbide Mononitrate:

Mechanism of Action
Indications
Adverse reactions
Dosage and administration

Mechanism of Action:
It works by widening blood vessels both in the heart and around the body. Nitrate preventers

Indications:
Preventing attacks of angina chest pain.
Heart failure.

Adverse reactions:
Headache, mild dizziness;
warmth, redness, or tingling under your skin;
nausea, vomiting, constipation

Dosage and administration:
10mg-20mg