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Flashcards in Cardio Deck (75)
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1

What does the left circumflex artery supply

Left ventricular wall

2

What does the marginal branch supply

Right ventricle

3

What does the posterior descending artery supply

Posterior and inferior left ventricle

4

Calculate map

1/3 systolic + 2/3 diastolic

5

Name the three layers of arteries and veins

Intima media adventitia

6

What is the aorta is blood supply

Vasa vasorum

7

Inotropy

Myocardial contraction

8

Lusitropy

Myocardial relaxion

9

Chronotropy

SA node firing

10

Dromotropy

AV mode conduction velocity

11

Me neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system

Norepinephrine

12

Where is renin released from

The kidneys

13

Three reasons why am renin is released

Low blood pressure
low sodium
norepinephrine stimulation

14

Where is angiotensinogen made

Liver

15

Four things that angiotensin II does

Smooth muscle construction
water resorption
ADH release
aldosterone release

16

Purpose of aldosterone

Triggers renal sodium and water resorption and potassium excretion

17

Recommended daily allowance of sodium per day

1500 mg per day

18

How much do most antihypertensive meds drop blood pressure

7-13 / 7-8

19

Mechanism of action of diuretics

Inhibits the NaCl pump on the distal convoluted tubule leading to increased sodium excretion and water excretion

20

Class of HCTZ

Diuretic

21

Side effect of HCTZ

Hypokalemia

22

Mechanism of action of potassium sparing diuretics

Block sodium channels in the distal nephron

23

Midamore

Amiloride
Potassium sparing diuretics

24

Dyreniun

Triamterene
Potassium sparing diuretics

25

Side effect of potassium sparing diuretics

Hyperkalemia

26

Class of antihypertensives used and CHF

Loop diuretics

27

Mechanism of action of Loop diuretics

Blocks sodium potassium chloride transporter in the loop of Henley. Decreased sodium reabsorption and thus less watery absorption

28

Ladin

Furosemide
Loop diuretic

29

Side effect of Loop diuretics

Dehydration leaving to Renal failure

30

Demedex

Torsemide
Loop diuretic

31

Mechanism of action of ace inhibitors

Decrease angiotensin II production
increase bradykinin levels
decrease sympathetic activity

32

Prinvil

Lisinopril
ACEi

33

First line antihypertensive for patients with renal disease

Ace inhibitors

34

Side effect of lisinopril

Angioedema and cough

35

Vasotec

Enalapril
ACEi

36

Diovan

Valsartan
ARB

37

Cozaar

Losartan
ARB

38

Mechanism of action of aldosterone antagonist

Aldosterone receptor antagonist
increase potassium
decrease sodium reabsorption and thus less water reabsorption

39

Aldactone

Spironolactone
Aldosterone antagonist

40

Side effect of Aldactone

Decreases testosterone and increases estradiol leaving to gynecomastia impotence and menstrual abnormalities

41

Mechanism of action of beta blockers

Competitively inhibits beta-1 receptors
decreases heart rate and contractility
lowers cardiac output

42

Lopressor

Metoprolol
Beta blocker

43

Contraindication of beta blockers

Asthma and COPD

44

Trandate

Labetolol
Beta blocker

45

Which beta blocker also has alpha-1 inhibition

Labetalol

46

Alpha blocker mechanism of action

Alpha-1 receptors blocker

47

Cardua

Doxazosin
Alpha blocker

48

Hytrin

Terazosin
Alpha blocker

49

Mechanism of action of sympatholytic agents

Alpha-2 receptors agonists decreased resistance by decreasing sympathetic outflow and depleting norepinephrine

50

Catapress

Clonidine
Alpha-2 receptors agonist

51

Side effects of Catapress

Rebound hypertension sexual dysfunction

52

Which antihypertensive helps with heroin withdrawal

Catapres

53

Mechanism of action of calcium channel blocker's

Block calcium channels and reduce intracellular calcium and reduce vasoconstriction

54

Mechanism of action of non-dihydropyridine's

Decrease force of contraction
vasodilation
slow SA and AV node

55

Mechanism of action of dihydropyridine's

Decrease SVR an arterial pressure

56

Side effect of dihydropyridine's

Reflex tachycardia

57

Norvasc

Amlodipine
Dihydro CCB

58

Procardia

Nifedipine
Dihydro CCB

59

Cardiazem

Diltiazem
Nondihydro

60

Side effect of Cardiazem

Peripheral edema

61

First-line antihypertensive for a fib patients

Cardiazem

62

What does the LAD supply?

The septum in the anterior ventricular wall

63

Symptoms of mitral regurgitation

Dyspnea
fatiguability
palpitation
left-sided heart failure

64

Most common cause of mitral regurgitation

MVP

65

Hello systolic murmur at the apex of the heart

Mitral regurgitation

66

Mid systolic click and late systolic murmur

MVP

67

Most common cause of mitral stenosis

Rheumatic heart disease

68

Symptoms of mitral stenosis

Dyspnea hemoptysis palpitations fatigue

69

Symptoms of aortic stenosis

Dyspnea
exertional syncope
pulmonary congestion
fatigue

70

Paradoxically split s2

Aortic stenosis

71

Acute causes of aortic regurgitation

Endocarditis
aortic dissection
Trauma

72

Chronic causes of aortic regurgitation

Rheumatic heart disease
bicuspid valve
Marfan syndrome

73

Symptoms of tricuspid regurgitation

Dyspnea
systemic vascular congestion

74

Symptoms of tricuspid stenosis

Fatigue
systemic vascular congestion

75

Most common cause of tricuspid stenosis

Rheumatic heart disease