Cardio Alterations Flashcards Preview

Peds Exam 3 > Cardio Alterations > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardio Alterations Deck (30):
1

When should the fetal shunt close

Within 72 hours after birth

Murmurs are heard if these shunts are open!!

2

Patent means

Open

3

PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS (PDA)

Blood going from aorta then to pulmonary arteries into the lungs instead of to the body.

Too much blood in lungs
Increased pulmonary circulation
Pulmonary congestion occurs
Less oxygenated blood flows to the body

4

ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECT (ASD)

Hole in wall between right and left atria

Blood does back from the left atrium back to the right atrium

Less oxygenated blood going to the body
Pulmonary congestion

5

VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT (VSD)

Hole in wall between right and left ventricles

Blood is going from the left ventricle back to the right ventricle

Less oxygenated blood going to the body
Pulmonary congestion

6

Pulmonic stenosis (traffic jam)

Narrowing at the entrance of pulmonary artery

RIGHT HEART FAILURE (right ventricular hypertrophy)

decreased pulmonary circulation

7

Aortic stenosis

Narrowing at the entrance of aorta

Left heart failure(left ventricular hypertrophy)

Decreased cardiac Output

8

COARCTATION OF THE AORTA

Narrowing of the aortic arch

Abdominal pain is common

Decreased blood flow to abdomen and lower extremities

Good blood supply to head,chest, and arms

9

What intervention needs to be done for a pt with coarctation of the aorta

4-point blood pressure

Blood pressure taking on all extremities.

Lower extremities will have a weaker pulse and lower BP

10

What must Tetralogy of fallot have

Four defects at the same time!!

VarieD PictureS Of A RancH

Causes TET spells- knees to chest ASAP

11

VarieD PictureS Of A RancH

VarieD- VSD
PictureS- pulmonary stenosis
Of A- overriding aorta(displacement of aorta)
RancH- right ventricular hypertrophy

12

What are TET spells

Cyanosis episodes

Baby turns blue

13

First thing to do for a TET spell

Knees to chest!!!!

Squat w/knees to chest

Helps blood return to heart/lungs

14

Cardiac defect S/S

-Cyanosis
-Increased HR
-Decrease O2 sat
-difficult and fast breathing
-cardiomegaly
-HEART MURMURS

15

Cardiac defect interventions

-supplemental O2
-strict I/O
-daily at check
-enhance calories
-allow periods of rest
-do not feed baby for more than 30 minutes

16

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS)

-Very serious
-left ventricle is poorly developed or small
TX
Do nothing
3step surgery
Heart transplant
VAD

17

Transposition of the great arteries (TOGA)

-Crisscrossed arteries
-two completely separate systems not communicating
-DX intra utero
-surgery right at birth
-KEEP PDA OPEN WITH MEDICATION until surgery

18

What is Infective endocarditis

Inflammation caused by infection of the heart valves and lining(usually bacterial)

19

S/S of infective endocarditis

-fever
-decreased appetite
-nausea
-fatigue
-malaise
-NEW OR CHANGED HEART MURMUR
-arthralgia
-chest pain
-heart failure symptoms
-petechiae

20

How to prevent endocarditis

Prophylactic antibiotics before dental procedures with specific cardiac issues or previously dx w/ endocarditis

21

Treatment for infective endocarditis

2-8 week IV antibiotic
Sometimes surgery

22

What is rheumatic fever

Diffuse inflammatory condition of the connective tissues(heart,joint,SQ tissue,brain, blood vessels)

Likely auto immune from untreated strep

23

Treatment for rheumatic fever

Daily prophylactic antibiotics for 10 years or until 21 years of age (whichever is longer)

24

S/S rheumatic fever

-polyarthritis(tender,painful joints)
-fever w/sore throat
-carditis(inflammation of the heart)
-chorea( involuntary movements of extremities and face)
-erythema marginatum(red skin lesions starting at trunk and spreading)
SQ nodules(small no tender swelling over joints)
-abdominal pain

25

What is Kawasaki disease

-Serious but rare
-acute febrile illness with inflammation of the blood vessels
-3 phases

26

S/S of Kawasaki disease

-red blood-shot eyes
-red swollen hands
-red swollen feet
-high fever
-red cracked lips and red tongue(STRAWBERRY TONGUE)
-rash involving much of the body

27

What happens if Kawasaki disease is left untreated?

Can develop coronary artery aneurysms

28

Subacute phase of Kawasaki

-Fever starts to get better
-greatest risk for coronary aneurysm
-sudden death may occur

29

Final stage of Kawasaki is complete when...

Lab values return to normal

30

Treatment for Kawasaki

-IV IMMUNOGLOBULINS
-high doses of aspirin
-prevent cardiac complications