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Flashcards in Cardio definitions Deck (78)
1

arrhythmia

alteration in rate or rhythm

2

bradycardia

slowing of heart rate

3

tachycardia

increase heart rate - physiological or pathological

4

sinus bradycardia

slowing of heart rate normally via SA node

5

sinus trachycardia

increase in heart rate governed by SA node due to increased sympathetic input - fear, exercise

6

sinus arrhythmia

Variations in heart rate synchronous with respiration - completely normal for fit individuals

7

ESV - end systolic volume

volume of blood in ventricle at the end of ventricular systole

8

EDV - end diastolic volume

the volume of blood in the ventricle at the end of ventricular filling (atrial systole)

9

stroke volume

volume of blood that is ejected
SV = EDV-ESV

10

ejection fraction (EF)

proportion of EDV ejected - due to the contractility of the heart
EF = SV/EDV

11

systolic pressure

peak pressure at point of maximum ejection of blood from the ventricle

12

diastolic pressure

pressure when outlet valves are closed

13

pulse pressure =

systolic pressure - diastolic pressure

14

flow =

pressure difference (mean arteriole pressure)/ resistance

15

mean arteriole pressure =

cardiac output X resistance (total peripheral resistance)
OR
diastolic pressure + pulse pressure/3

16

cardiac output =

Heart rate X stroke volume

17

stroke volume =

end diastolic volume - end systolic volume
also effected by contractility

18

preload

venous return - increase preload increase contraction
- the force stretching the relaxed myocardium

19

afterload, what occurs when change

what heart has to push against to open valves
- blood pressure in the aorta or the MEAN ARTERIOLE PRESSURE - determined by total peropheral resistance and cardiac output
reduce afterload decrease pressure need to open valves therefore increase cardiac output

20

compliance

describes the elastic property of a vessel - how much volume changes in response to given change in distending pressure

21

Anastomosis

(joining together)
could be arteries

22

active hyperaemia

increased blood volume due to arteriolar dilation and expansion of the perfused capillary bed

23

hyperaemia

too much blood
increased blood volume within the vasculature of a tissue or organ

24

passive congestion

passive hyperaemia = passive congestion = congestion
a passive process in which increased blood volume within the vasculature of a tissue is due to impairment of venous outflow

25

Erythema

red skin due to vasodilation of oxygenated blood vessels (arterioles)

26

hydrothorax

accumulation of non-inflammatory oedema fluid in the thoracic cavity

27

hydropericardium

accumulation of non-inflammatory oedema fluid in the pericardial sac

28

ascites (hydroperitoneum)

accumulation of non-inflammatory oedema fluid within the peritoneal cavity

29

hydrocoele

accumulation of non-inflammatory oedema fluid within the cavity of the tunica vaginalis of the scrotum

30

anasarca

severe generalised oedema (often most prominent in the subcutis but with accompanying body cavity effusions)

31

thrombosis

inappropriate formation of a blood clot (thrombus) within the cardiovascular system

32

mural thrombus

non- occlusive thrombus - only partially into vessel lumen- generally arterioles

33

occlusive thrombus

completely obstruct the lumen - generally venous clots

34

thromboemboli

fragments dislodged from an upstream thrombus that travel downstream in the blood to become trapped in distant vessels of smaller calibre

35

fibrinolysis

enzymatic breakdown of fibrin - administration of plasminogen with 48hours

36

embolus

an intravascular, solid, liquid or gaseous mass that is transported by the blood to a site distant from its point of origin

37

embolism

the blockage of a downstream vessel by an embolus arising upstream

38

ischaemia

hypoxic or anoxic tissue injury resulting from a local reduction in blood flow

39

infarction

the process by which ischaemic necrosis of a localised area of tissue develops

40

infarct

the area of tissue which has undergone infarction

41

pulmonary hypertension

a sustained increase in systolic blood pressure in the pulmonary artery

42

systemic hypertension

a sustained increase in systemic arterial blood pressure

43

epistaxis

bleeding from the nostrils

44

systemic hypotension

a sustained decrease in systemic arterial blood pressure

45

shock

(also known as cardiovascular collapse) = a generalised phenomenon of peripheral circulatory failure - under perfusion of tissues

46

cardiogenic shock

rapid decrease in systolic cardiac output despite presence of adequate blood volume

47

hypovolaemic shock

significant reduction (> 20-25%) in the circulating blood volume

48

distributive shock and examples

inappropriate vasodilation of arterioles, with pooling of blood in capillary beds and venous channels
1) neurogenic shock
2) anaphylaxis
3) sepsis
4) heart stroke

49

what is meant by constrictive heart disease

reduced ventricular compliance - impaired diastolic filling of the right ventricle
- leads to right-sided congestive heart failure

50

define cardiac tamponade

excess volume of fluid in the pericardial sac
rapid effusions
- leads to impaired filling of heart and therefore acute right-sided congestive heart failure

51

hydropericardium

accumulation of non-inflammatory fluid (transudate or modified
transudate) in the pericardial sac

52

haemopericardium

presence of free blood in the pericardial sac

53

gout

birds and reptiles, uric acid (urate) crystals may be deposited over the pericardial membranes, over the capsule of the liver, and in the renal tubules and ureters

54

jet lesions

turbulent regurgitant blood resulting in static pressure injury to subendocardium and therefore focal fibrosis

55

endocardiosis

myxomatous degeneration of the heart valves

56

Metastatic mineralisation

mineral deposition in viable tissues due to an increased serum concentration of calcium (or phosphorus)

57

Dystrophic mineralisation =

mineral deposition in necrotic tissues

58

myocarditis

inflammation of the myocardium - lymphocyte rich

59

cardiomyopathy

idiopathic myocardial disease

60

haemangiosarcoma

a malignant tumour of vascular endothelium

61

myointimal cells

endothelial cells and/or macrophages, smooth muscle cells of the tunica media may migrate through pores in the internal elastic lamina into the subendothelial layer and are now named

62

arteriosclerosis

hardening of the arteries
= a chronic degenerative disease of arteries characterised by hardening, loss of elasticity, and luminal narrowing

63

atherosclerosis

arteriosclerosis in which there is significant lipid deposition and fatty degeneration of the vessel wall

64

arteriolosclerosis

non-fatty degeneration of arterioles of small to medium size

65

hyaline degeneration

a spectrum of arteriolosclerotic lesions involving deposition of
collagen, elastin, glycosaminoglycans or amyloid in the tunica intima
+/- tunica media of damaged arterioles

66

fibrinoid change

an extracellular degenerative change in damaged small arteries and
arterioles in which plasma proteins dissect through the wall from the
vessel lumen

67

aneurysm

a localised abnormal dilation or out-pouching of a blood vessel

68

dissecting aneurysm

blood enters the vessel wall through a tear in the endothelium and tunica intima and thence dissects between layers of the tunica media to create a cavity within the vessel wall +/- luminal narrowing

69

vasculitis

inflammation of vessels

70

phlebitis

inflammation of veins

71

lymphangitis

inflammation of lymphatics

72

Verminous Arteritis, example

inflammation of arteries due to parasite
- heart worm (Dirofilaria immitis)

73

thrombophlebitis

phlebitis invariably leads to thrombosis

74

phlebectasia

dilation of a vein (= varicosity)

75

omphalophlebitis

inflammation of the umbilical vein

76

lymphoedema

swelling of tissue by excess interstitial lymph due to impaired lymphatic
drainage

77

lymphangiectasia

dilation of lymphatics

78

chylothorax

free chylomicron-rich lymph (chyle) within the thoracic cavity