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Flashcards in Cardio definitions Deck (78)
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1

arrhythmia

alteration in rate or rhythm

2

bradycardia

slowing of heart rate

3

tachycardia

increase heart rate - physiological or pathological

4

sinus bradycardia

slowing of heart rate normally via SA node

5

sinus trachycardia

increase in heart rate governed by SA node due to increased sympathetic input - fear, exercise

6

sinus arrhythmia

Variations in heart rate synchronous with respiration - completely normal for fit individuals

7

ESV - end systolic volume

volume of blood in ventricle at the end of ventricular systole

8

EDV - end diastolic volume

the volume of blood in the ventricle at the end of ventricular filling (atrial systole)

9

stroke volume

volume of blood that is ejected
SV = EDV-ESV

10

ejection fraction (EF)

proportion of EDV ejected - due to the contractility of the heart
EF = SV/EDV

11

systolic pressure

peak pressure at point of maximum ejection of blood from the ventricle

12

diastolic pressure

pressure when outlet valves are closed

13

pulse pressure =

systolic pressure - diastolic pressure

14

flow =

pressure difference (mean arteriole pressure)/ resistance

15

mean arteriole pressure =

cardiac output X resistance (total peripheral resistance)
OR
diastolic pressure + pulse pressure/3

16

cardiac output =

Heart rate X stroke volume

17

stroke volume =

end diastolic volume - end systolic volume
also effected by contractility

18

preload

venous return - increase preload increase contraction
- the force stretching the relaxed myocardium

19

afterload, what occurs when change

what heart has to push against to open valves
- blood pressure in the aorta or the MEAN ARTERIOLE PRESSURE - determined by total peropheral resistance and cardiac output
reduce afterload decrease pressure need to open valves therefore increase cardiac output

20

compliance

describes the elastic property of a vessel - how much volume changes in response to given change in distending pressure

21

Anastomosis

(joining together)
could be arteries

22

active hyperaemia

increased blood volume due to arteriolar dilation and expansion of the perfused capillary bed

23

hyperaemia

too much blood
increased blood volume within the vasculature of a tissue or organ

24

passive congestion

passive hyperaemia = passive congestion = congestion
a passive process in which increased blood volume within the vasculature of a tissue is due to impairment of venous outflow

25

Erythema

red skin due to vasodilation of oxygenated blood vessels (arterioles)

26

hydrothorax

accumulation of non-inflammatory oedema fluid in the thoracic cavity

27

hydropericardium

accumulation of non-inflammatory oedema fluid in the pericardial sac

28

ascites (hydroperitoneum)

accumulation of non-inflammatory oedema fluid within the peritoneal cavity

29

hydrocoele

accumulation of non-inflammatory oedema fluid within the cavity of the tunica vaginalis of the scrotum

30

anasarca

severe generalised oedema (often most prominent in the subcutis but with accompanying body cavity effusions)