Cardio drugs (pharmacology) Flashcards Preview

Cardio DRUGS > Cardio drugs (pharmacology) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardio drugs (pharmacology) Deck (66)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

What effect does ivabradine have on the heart?

A

= slows HR down reducing oxygen consumption

2
Q

why do ivabradine slow the heart down?

A

= by selectively blocking HCN channels

3
Q

what is ivabradine used to treat?

A
  • angina

- tachycardia

4
Q

what are 3 examples of B-adrenoceptor agonists?

A
  • dobutamine (selective for B1)
  • adrenaline
  • noradrenaline
5
Q

what effect do B-adrenoceptor agonists have on the heart?

A
  • increased contractility, force of contract and heart rate
6
Q

why do B-adrenoceptor agonists increase the contractility, force and rate of the heart?

A
  • they stimulate adenyl cyclase and produces cAMP, generating Protein kinase A
  • also phosphorylates an increase in Ca2+ influx, releasing Ca2+ from sarcoplasmic reticulum
7
Q

when are B-adrenoceptors used?

A
  • infarction
  • cardiogenic shock
  • cardiomyopathies
  • inotropic support
  • heart failure (dobutamine)
8
Q

what are 3 examples of beta blockers?

A
  • propanolol (non-selective)
  • metoprolol (selective for B1)
  • atenolol (selective for B1)
9
Q

what do beta blockers do to the heart?

A
  • decrease heart rate, contractility and MAP

- decreases O2 consumption

10
Q

what are Beta blockers used to treat?

A
  • angina
  • hypertension
  • heart failure
  • thyrotoxicosis
11
Q

give an example of a muscarinic antagonist?

A

= atropine

12
Q

what receptor does atropine act on?

A

= non-selective for M2 receptor

13
Q

what does atropine do to the heart rate?

A

= increases heart rate

14
Q

when is atropine used?

A

= to reverse bradycardia following an MI

15
Q

what is an example of a cardiac glycoside?

A

= digoxin

16
Q

when is digoxin used?

A

= atrial fibrillation

= heart failure

17
Q

what does digoxin do to the heart?

A

= slows the heart rate down but increases its force of contraction

18
Q

how does digoxin work?

A
  • competes with K+ and at alpha sub-unit blocks the Na+/K+ ATPase pump
  • increasing contractility by blocking the sarcoma ATP tase
  • increases vagal activity, slowing SA node discharge
19
Q

when is digoxin used?

A
  • heart failure

- atrial fibrillattion

20
Q

describe the 4 classes of anti-arrhythmic drugs?

A

class I = Na+ channel blockers

Class II = beta blockers

class III = K+ channel blockers

Class IV = ca2+ channel antagonists

21
Q

give an example of a Na+ channel blocker?

A

= flecanide

22
Q

give an example of a B-blocker?

A

= propanolol

23
Q

give an example of a K+ channel blocker, that prolongs the action potential?

A

= amiodarone, sotalol

24
Q

give an example of a Ca2+ channel antagonist?

A

= verapamil

25
Q

what classes of drugs are used for rate and rhythm control?

A

Class I and III for rhythm

Class II and IV for rate

26
Q

give 3 examples of nitrates?

A
  • isosorbide mononirate

- GTN spray

27
Q

when are nitrate used?

A
  • angina

- acute heart failure

28
Q

how do nitrates work?

A
  • produce nitric oxide which is formed thorough influx of Ca2+ activation of eNOS and L-arginine
  • NO causes efflux of Ca2+ producing hyper-polarisation and relaxation
  • cGMP is also produced which regulates protein kinase g = relaxation
  • endothelial is also produced
29
Q

give an example of an ACE inhibitor?

A

= lisinopril

30
Q

what do Ace inhibitors do?

A

= block the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II

  • preventing aldosterone and ADH from being stimulated
  • causing vasodilation anda arterial dilatation
31
Q

when are ACE inhibitors used?

A
  • hypertension

- heart failure

32
Q

give an example of an angiotensin receptor blockers?

A

= losartan

33
Q

how do angiotensin receptor blockers work?

A

= by blocking angiotensin II receptor

34
Q

when are angiotensin receptors used?

A

= hypertension

= hear failure

35
Q

what are 3 calcium antagonists?

A
  • amlodipine
  • verapamil
  • diltiazem
36
Q

what effect do Ca2+ antagonists have on the heart?

A
  • decrease conduction of SA and AV node

- decreasing heart rate

37
Q

when are calcium antagonists used?

A

= hypertension
= angina
= supra-ventricular arrhythmias

38
Q

give an example of an alpha blocker?

A
  • doxazosin
39
Q

what do alpha blockers do to the heart?

A

= block alpha-adrenoceptors causing vasodilation

40
Q

when are alpha blockers used?

A
  • hypertension

- prostatic hypertrophy

41
Q

give 2 examples of K+ channel openers?

A
  • minoxidil

- nicroandil

42
Q

when are K+ channel openers used?

A
  • severe hypertension

- angina

43
Q

what effect do K+ channel openers have on the heart?

A
  • causes hyper-polarisation, which switches of Ca2+ channels
  • mediated by ATP
  • relaxation of vascular smooth muscle
44
Q

when are K+ channel openers used?

A
  • severe hypertension

- angina

45
Q

what are 2 types of diuretics, give examples?

A

1) thiazide
= benfroluazide

2) loop
= furesomide

46
Q

how do diuretics work?

A
  • inhibit NaCl re-absorption in distal tubules by blocking NaCl co-transporter
  • inhibiting NaCl re-absorption in thick ascending limb of loop of Henle
  • increasing the excretion of Na, Cl, and water
  • decreasing blood volume
47
Q

when are diuretics used?

A
  • hypertension

- heart failure

48
Q

what drugs are used to treat high cholesterol?

A

= statins

49
Q

give 2 examples of statins?

A
  • simvastatin

- atorvostatitn

50
Q

how do statins work?

A
  • blocks HMG CoA reductase, inhibiting formation of cholesterol
  • decreasing LDL and total cholesterol inflammation
  • stabilising atherosclerotic plaques and decreased thrombosis
51
Q

what drug is used to treat high triglyceride levels?

A

= fibrates

52
Q

give 2 examples of fibres?

A
  • bezafibrate

- gemfibrozil

53
Q

what do fibrates do?

A

= agonist of nuclear receptors which enhances transcription of lipoprotein lipase, which hydrolyses triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol

54
Q

describe ezetimibe?

A

= decreases LDL

55
Q

give an example of an anti-coagulant?

A

= warfarin

56
Q

when is warfarin used?

A
  • DVT
  • PE
  • NSTEMI
  • AF
57
Q

how does warfarin act?

A
  • blocks closing factors 2, 7, 9, 10

= antagonists of vita K which prevents production of mature coagulation factors

58
Q

what are 4 examples of anti-coagulants other than warfarin?

A

= heparin
= low molecular weight heparin
= orally active inhibitors

59
Q

what are these anti-coagulants used to treat?

A

= DVT
= Pe
= NSTEMI
= AF

60
Q

how do these anti-coagulants work?

A
  • binds to anti-thrombin III, increasing its affinity for serene protease to greatly increase its rate of inactivation
  • factor Xa = activates thrombin IIa = fibrin = blood clot
61
Q

give 2 examples of anti-platelets?

A
  • aspirin

- clopidogrel

62
Q

when are anti-platelets used?

A
  • angina
  • acute MI
  • cerebral vascular incident
63
Q

how do Anti-platelets work?

A
  • prevent new thrombosis

- blocks COX, inhibiting formation of TXA2, which causes crosslinkiing of platelets

64
Q

give examples of fibrinolytic drugs?

A

= streptokines
= tissue plasminogen activators
= alteplase/ duteplase

65
Q

when are fibrinolytic drugs used?

A
  • STEMI
  • PE
  • CVA
66
Q

how do fibrinolytic drugs work?

A
  • fibrinolytic cascade poses coagulation cascade

- activating formation of plasmin for plasminogen which lysis fibrin into fibrin fragments causing lysis of the clot