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Flashcards in Cardiology Deck (229)
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1

cardiothoracic ratio of > 50% can indicate what?

- cardiomegaly
- pericardial effusion

2

on the LATERAL view, any increase in the mass of the left ventricle extends the cardiac shadow ____

posteriorly and lower -- closer to the diaphragm

3

on the LATERAL view, any increase in the mass of the right ventricle extends the cardiac shadow ____

anteriorly behind the sternum

4

CXR findings of coarctation of aorta

- absence of normal aortic arch
- "3" sign (prominent left subclavian artery, coarctation, poststenotic dilation of descending aorta)
- "reversed 3" sign on barium swallow
- intercostal rib notching

5

CXR findings of heart failure

- cardiomegaly
- pulmonary vascular redistribution (visibly thickened upper lobe pulmonary veins)
- Kerley B lines
- pleural effusions (usually right > left)

6

CXR finding of anomalous pulmonary vein that drains into the IVC

"scimitar sign" (curvilinear opacity in right lower lung field d/t associated lung hypoplasia)

7

CXR finding of aortic dissection

mediastinal widening on PA view

8

CXR finding of pericardial effusion

- "WATER BOTTLE" or "water balloon" heart shape
- sometimes significant enlargement of cardiac silhouette

9

areas of CALCIFICATIONS on CXR:

- aortic

think DISSECTION if separation between calcification and aortic border, especially if mediastinum appears wide

10

areas of CALCIFICATIONS on CXR:

- myocardial

apical aneurysm

11

areas of CALCIFICATIONS on CXR:

- valvular

commonly aortic

12

areas of CALCIFICATIONS on CXR:

- annular (ring-shaped)

mitral annular calcification

(if perfect ring, prosthetic valve likely)

13

areas of CALCIFICATIONS on CXR:

- pericardial

- think constrictive pericarditis
- or think TB if clinical history suggests exposure

14

CXR finding of ventricular pacemaker

single lead in apex of right ventricle

15

CXR finding of implanted defibrillator

single lead in apex of right ventricle that is LARGER and WIDER than that of the pacemaker

16

CXR finding of atrioventricular (AV) sequential (dual-chamber) pacemaker

2 leads

17

CXR finding of biventricular pacemaker

3 leads

18

- left ventricular structure and systolic function
- right ventricular structure and systolic function
- valvular heart disease
- congenital heart disease
- myocardial infarction (including post-MI complications)
- cardiomyopathy (both loss of EF and hypertrophy of myocardium)
- cardiac masses (tumor, thrombus, and vegetation)
- diseases of aorta and pulmonary artery
- estimation of pulmonary pressure
- diastolic function
- cardiac sources of emboli

BEST use of echocardiogram

19

echo performed w/ an esophageal probe

TRANSESOPHAGEAL ECHOCARDIOGRAM (TEE)

20

HIGHER-RESOLUTION images compared to tranTHORACIC echocardiogram

TRANSESOPHAGEAL ECHOCARDIOGRAM (TEE)

21

- valvular structure and function
- left atrium (including left atrial appendage)
- cardiac masses
- intracardiac shunts
- endocarditis
- aortic dissection

TRANSESOPHAGEAL ECHOCARDIOGRAM (TEE) provides higher-resolution images than TTE

22

is used to evaluate intracardiac shunts

BUBBLE STUDY

23

measures the VELOCITY and DIRECTION of blood flow

doppler echocardiography

24

is useful in determining the severity of valvular stenosis or regurgitation, evaluating LV diastolic function, LV outflow tract gradients, and intracardiac shunts

doppler echocardiography

25

key factor in use of exercise testing as a diagnostic tool for coronary artery disease (CAD)

INCREASED DEMAND for myocardial oxygen

26

stress tests have an integral role in what 2 ways?

- detection of CAD (DIAGNOSTIC tool)
- stratification of risk (PROGNOSTIC tool)

27

diagnostic testing is MOST VALUABLE when?

pretest probability for CAD is INTERMEDIATE

28

what are the 2 general types of cardiac stress tests?

1. exercise tolerance test (w/o imaging)
2. stress imaging testing
- "STRESS" is induced w/ exercise or pharmacologic stress

29

what is the associated IMAGING done w/ stress testing?

- echocardiography (aka stress echo)
- myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI; nuclear stress test)

30

is the cornerstone of DIAGNOSTIC testing for ISCHEMIA and FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY and for determining PROGNOSIS (including post-MI)

exercise tolerance test (ETT)