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Flashcards in Cardiology Risk Factors Deck (40)
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How are diabetics treated to prevent the things above?

Aggressive control of modifiable risk factors like BP, lipids, obesity.

**NOTE, glycemic control may reduce macrovascular risk, but jury is out**


Vascular effects of obesity/physical inactivity

Inflammation caused by adipose tissue secreting pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Hypertension -- increased cardiac output to meet the higher metabolic demands of excess body weight, along with changes in vascular tone.

Endothelial dysfunction

Insulin resistance


Definition of obesity?



Guidelines for activity

30 minutes or more of moderate intensity physical activity on most days of the week.


Smoking is a CHD risk factor for young adults because...?

It increases fatty streaks and raised lesions in abdominal aorta in people 15-34.


Mechanism of smoking related injury

Endothelial damage
Prothombotic effects on platelets
Coronary vasoconstriction
Oxidative modification of LDL-C.


Is LDL-C sufficient alone as a risk factor?

No, think about Tim russert.


Role of homocysteine in atherogenesis

CVD patients have elevated levels of plasma homocysteine. May cause oxidative stress, inflammation, platelet aggregations. But reducing homocysteine doesn't have benefit on CV risk.


Lipoprotein A and CV risk

variant of LDL, may impair endogenous thrombolysis.

Promotes inflammation.

High LpA levels have higher risk


C-reactive protein

Acute phase reactant released by liver that is a marker of inflammation. Associated with cardiac risk independent of cholesterol levels.

Is it a mediator or marker of atherosclerosis?

Has had interesting results suggestion that may be a risk factor