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Clin Med - Cardio Exam #2 > Cardiomyopathies > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiomyopathies Deck (47)
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1

Definition of Cardiomyopathy

Intrinsic disease of myocardium that causes hemodynamic dysfuction
-heart failure, L and/or R biventricular failure

2

What percentage of heart failure diagnosed in the US is cardiomyopathy?

5-10%

3

The cause of Cardiomyopathy is usually __________ although it can be secondary to multi vessel disease.

Non-ischemic

4

T/F cardiomyopathy can be related to valve disease, and/or systemic HTN

F!

5

What are the 2 categories of etiologies of cardiomyopathy?

Primary intrinsic
Secondary intrinsic

6

What causes Primary intrinsic cardiomyopathy?

Genetic disorders of myocardial fibers

7

What causes secondary intrinsic cardiomyopathy?

Sarcoidosis
Hemachromatosis
Chronic anemia

8

What are the three main PATTERNS of cardiomyopathy?

Dilated
Hypertrophied
Restrictive

9

Signs and symptoms of all cardiomyopathies

DOE (increased LV/LA/PA pressure)
Fatigue (decreased CO)
As disease advances so do symptoms

10

What is the most common type of cardiomyopathy?

dilated

11

Define dilated cardiomyopathy

enlarge LV with decreased systolic function and ejection fraction.

12

What must the ejection fraction be less than to consider dilated cardiomyopathy as diagnosis?

EF less than 50%

13

Epidemiology of dilated cardiomyopathy

Men more than women
Blacks more than whites
Age of onset 20-50

14

In dialated cardiomyopathy ______ failure is more pronounced than _______ failure

Systolic failure is more pronounced than diastolic failure

15

With dilated cardiomyopathy the heart can be enlarged _____ - _____ x normal weight

2-3X

16

Causes of intrinsic dilated cardiomyopathy

Genetic (20-50%)
Idiopathic
CAD
RX's (ETOH, and chemo drugs)
Thyroid dz
Peripartum
infections
chronic tachy
sarcoidosis
amyloidosis
hemochromatosis
DM

17

Signs and symptoms of Dilated cardiomyopathy

Pulmonary rales
Elevated JVD
Cariomegaly
S3 Gallop rhythm
Murmurs of mitral or tricuspid regurg. (systolic)
peripheral edema
ascites

18

What symptoms are present in severe heart failure secondary to dilated cardiomyopathy?

Cheyne-stokes breathing -
Pulsus alterans
Pallor
cyanosis

19

What diagnostic studies can be used in workup for dilated cardiomyopathy?

Echo
ECG
CXR

20

What would you be looking for on Echo to confirm dil. Cmyop.

Presnence of dilated ventricle and reduced systolic function
EF less than 40%

21

What would you be looking for on ECG to confirm dil. Cmyop.

Sinus tachy
Ventricular/atrial arrhythmias

22

What would you be looking for on CXR to confirm dil. Cmyop.

Cardiomegaly
L and or right heart enlargement
Pleural effusion

23

What 2 types of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathies (HCM) exist?

Obstructive
Non-obstructive

24

What is age of onset of HCM

any age but commonly seen post-puberty

25

What is the most common genetic cause of cardiac death in young people including trained athletes?

HCM

26

Definition of HCM

Increased LV hypertrophy without the presence of an underlying cause such as valve dz, volume overload or systemic HTN.

27

What is the primary dysfunction of HCM

increased diastolic filling pressure from a stiff and small chambered hypertrophied LV

28

In obstructive HCM (there is outflow track obstruction) there is characteristic ________ that can obstruct outflow by narrowing the LV outflow track and decreasing EF.

asymmetric interventricular septal hypertrophy

29

Causes of intrinsic HCM

Genetic (50-80% of cases) MC genetic CV issue
Idiopathyic
IDMM (infants of diabetic mothers)

30

Signs and symptoms of HCM

Can range from mild to severe
Sudden death (need for good family hx)
Progressive DOE
Anginal CP
Presyncope/syncope
after valsalva maneuver or exercise, palpitations
Cardiac failure