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Flashcards in Cardiovascular Deck (42):
1

Aortic Regurgitation

ACE Inhibitors

2

Supraventricular Tachycardia

Adenosine
Beta-blockers
Unstable SVT -DC cardiovert

3

Torsades de Pointes
Type of ventricular tachycardia

Magnesium Sulphate

4

Sinus Sick Syndrome (SA node dysfunction)

Pacing

5

Sinus Bradycardia (<60bpm)

Common in inferior STEMIs
Atropine (>600mg)

6

Myocarditis

Supportive Treatment

7

Tetralogy of Fallot

Oxygen
Beta-blockers
Endocarditis
Prophylaxis
Surgery

8

Pericarditis

Supportive for viral causes
Antibiotics for specific bacterial cases

9

Coarctation of the aorta

Balloon dilation
Stenting surgery

10

Cardiomyopathy

Treat underlying cause
ACE Inhibitors
Angiotensin II receptor antagonist
Beta blockers
Calcium channel blockers
Diuretics
Anti-arrhythmic
Amiodarone and digoxin

11

Cardiac Tamponade

Pericardialcentesis

12

Aortic Regurgitation

Valve replacement
ACE Inhibitors
Angiotensin II receptor Antagonist
Diuretics

13

Mitral Stenosis

Valve replacement
Mitral ballon valvuloplasty
Loop diuretics (Furosemide)
Beta-blockers
Digoxin
Warfarin

14

Mitral Regurgitation

Valve replacement
Percutaneous mitral valve repair
Loop diuretics (furosemide)
ACE Inhibitors (Ramipril, Lisinopril, Perindopril)
Digoxin
Warfarin

15

Aortic Stenosis

Valve replacement
Ballon valvotomy
TAVI (valve implantation)

16

Pulseless electrical activity

Resuscitation
CPR
Atropine
Vasopressin
Adrenaline
Oxygen and intubation

17

Asystole

Adrenaline 1mg IV
Every 3-5mins following CPR
Atropine
Intubation and IV access

18

Ventricular Fibrillation

Defibrillation shock
Adrenaline
Consider adenosine

19

Pulseless VT

Defibrillation shock

20

Atrial Fibrillation

ABCDD
Amiodarone (anti-arrhythmic) rhythm
B1 beta blockers (bisoprolol) rate
Calcium channel blockers (verapamil) rate
Digoxin (anti-arrhythmic) rate
DC Cardioversion- rhythm
Anti-coagulation
Maze procedure

21

Ventricular Tachycardia

Acute (unstable)= DC cardioversion
Paroxysmal (stable)=amiodarone

If unsure between VT and SVT give adenosine (anti-arrhythmic)

22

Chronic Arrhythmias

Radiofrequency ablation which is a selective cauterisation of cardiac tissue to prevent tachycardia

23

Supraventricular Arrhythmias
(A. Fib, Atrial flutter, ectopic atrial tachycardia)

VAV
Vagal manoeuvres and carotid massage
Adenosine IV
Verapamil IV

Unstable- DC Cardiovert

24

Acute STEMI

MONA C
Morphine + anti-emetic
Oxygen
Nitrate
Aspirin (300mg)
Clopidogrel

PCI within 90mins, not possible= thrombolysis

25

Post MI

SABA + C
Statin
ACE Inhibitor
Beta-blocker
Aspirin
+Clopidogrel for 4 weeks

Calcium channel blockers can be used instead of BB and warfarin instead of aspirin


26

Stroke

Ischaemic (blood clot) SATS
Statins
Aspirin
Thrombolysis (tPA)
Supportive

Haemorrhagic (aneurysm)
Supportive
Refer to stroke unit
Anti-hypertensives

27

Varicose Veins

Foam sclerotherapy (chemical thrombophlebitis)
Endovenous ablation
Compression stockings

28

AAA

Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

Stent passed through artery in groin, seals off aneurysm from inside artery)

29

Limb Ischaemia

ALPS

Anti-platelets
Lifestyle change (stop smoking, exercise more)
PCI or vascular bypass
Statins

30

Phlegmasia Dolens
(DVT obstruction)

ICV filter through femoral artery which prevents thrombus entering lungs (PE prophylaxis)
Long term-anticoagulations

31

DVT

Anticoagulation with Low weight molecular heparin
Warfarin (but not in pregnancy)
TED compression stockings

32

Acute pulmonary oedema

Furosemide

33

Heart failure

Acute- take a SMINT
Sit up + give oxygen
Morphine
IV diuretic (furosemide)
Nitrate (GTN Spray)
Tailor further management

Standard therapy- DABS and digoxin
Diuretic
ACE inhibitor
Beta blocker
Spironolactone

34

Heart failure- Cor Pulmonale

Diuretics + Oxygen

35

Heart Failure- Vascular disease

Surgery

36

Heart Failure- A. Fib

Digoxin
DC Cardioversion

37

Angina

ABC BAGS P
Aspirin
B1 blockers
Ca channel blockers

By pass
Angioplasty
GTNs
Statins (if cholesterol >5mm/l)

Potassium channel openers (nicorandil, minoxidil)

38

Unstable Angina

HAG
Heparin IV
Aspirin
GTN IV

39

Coronary Artery Spasm

Ca channel blockers
Isosorbide mononitrate

40

Hypertension <55 yrs old

Step 1: ACE Inhibitors
Step 2: Ca channel blockers
Step 3: Thiazide diuretics
Step 4: Beta blockers or alpha blockers or spironolactone

Exchange ACE for ARB

41

Hypertension >55 yrs + Afro-Caribbean

Step 1: Ca channel blocker
Step 2: ACE Inhibitors
Step 3: Thiazide diuretics
Step 4: Beta blockers or alpha blockers or spironolactone

Exchange ACE for ARB

42

Hypertension with secondary disease

Angina: Beta blockers and ca channel blockers never together
Heart failure: Beta blockers and ACE Inhibitors
Diabetic nephropathy: ACE and ARBs
Prostatism: alpha blockers
Elderly: Thiazide diuretics