Cardiovascular Diagnostic/Lab Tests Flashcards Preview

NUR 102- Test 4 > Cardiovascular Diagnostic/Lab Tests > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular Diagnostic/Lab Tests Deck (24):
1

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Book - Chapter 15

What is CK or CPK and CK-MB? What is the significance of the measurement?

These are serum cardiac markers. Cardiac markers are proteins released from dead or damaged heart muscle cells.

2

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Book - Chapter 15

What is the normal CPK and CK-MB range in males and females?

Men: 30-180 IU/L
Women: 25-150 IU/L

3

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Book - Chapter 15

Explain the 12-Lead ECG. Is it invasive? What are the nursing implications?

This is a noninvasive procedure used to evaluate the heart rhythm, conduction through the electrical pathways of the heart.

The nurse should note any heart medication the patient is taking as they could affect monitoring.

4

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Book - Chapter 15

What is a stress electrocardiography? Is this a noninvasive or invasive test? What is the nursing implications?

It is a treadmill testing where the patient is placed on a treadmill or stationary bicycle to measure the heart's workload.

A consent form must be obtained. The client is NPO, refrain from smoking, drinking alcohol, and caffeine intake for 2 to 3 hours prior to testing. Beta blockers are held.

A physician and emergency resuscitation equipment is present during testing as this may cause a cardiac emergency.

5

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Book - Chapter 15

What is a pharmacologic stress test? What are the drugs that are used for this test? What are the nursing implications?

A consent form must be obtained. It is the same as the treadmill test, except a vasodilator (nitroglycerin or apresoline) is used instead of placing the patient on a treadmill or stationary bicycle.

The client is NPO, and is to refrain from smoking, alcohol, and caffeine intake for 2-3 hours prior to testing. Beta blockers are held.

A physician and emergency resuscitation is present as this test may cause a cardiac emergency.

6

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Book - Chapter 15

What is a transthoracic echocardigram (TTE)? Is this an invasive or noninvasive procedure? What are the nursing implications?

It is a noninvasive test involving a lubricated transducer held against the chest wall. It transmits and receives ultrasonic impulses. A computer converts the impulses to an image of the heart walls, chambers and their movements.

No food or fluid restriction are necessary. Provide a washcloth to wash off gel after the procedure.

7

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Book - Chapter 15

What is a transesophageal echocardigram (TEE)? Is this an invasive or noninvasive procedure? What are the nursing implications?

This is an invasive test involving a flexible transducer that is inserted into the the passageway of the esophagus.

Requires an informed consent. Food and fluid withheld for at least 4 hours prior to procedure. The nurse must monitor breathing, coughing, and gag reflexes after the exam. NPO until after the gag reflexes have returned.

8

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Book - Chapter 15

What is radiography? Is this a noninvasive or invasive procedure? What are the nursing implications?

This is an invasive procedure where a contrast is injected to identify the size and location of structures, and when combined with injected contrast, used to study blood flow through vessels.

If contrast is injected inquire about iodine and shellfish allergies. Ensure adequate hydration before and after the exam to reduce risk of kidney damage.

9

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Book - Chapter 15

What is a stress echocardiogram? Is this a noninvasive or invasive procedure? What are the nursing implications?

It is a noninvasive test that combines a resting TTE, exercise on treadmill or stationary bicycle to evaluate the effect of exercise on cardiac function.

A physician and emergency resuscitation is present.

Informed consent is required. Food and fluid such as NPO, smoking, alcohol, and caffeine restrictions 2-3 hours before procedure. Beta blockers are held.

10

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Book - Chapter 15

What is an Angiography? Is this a noninvasive or invasive procedure? What are the nursing implications prior and during the procedure?

This is an invasive procedure that combines x-rays and fluoroscopy with an injected contrast to illuminate blood flow through a vessel and evaluate the vessel's patency and structure.

Requires an informed consent. Assess for allergies to iodine and shellfish. Monitor VS during the procedure. Advise the client will remain awake during the procedure. Note a rapid pulse or a few "skipped beats" are common during the procedure.

11

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Book - Chapter 15

What are the nursing implications after an Angiography?

Monitor VS, distal pulses, color, movement, sensation, temperature, and capillary refill of affected extremity. The client should remain on bed rest with the affect extremity extended. The HOB should be elevated no more than 30º. Place a 5-lb sandbag over the access site for 6 hours or as ordered. Check site frequently for bleeding. Encourage fluids. Monitor I&O

12

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Book - Chapter 15

What should the nurse do in the event of bleeding after an angiograpjy?

The nurse should keep a pressure on the affected site.

13

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Book - Chapter 15

What is a cardiac catheterization? is this a noninvasive or invasive procedure? What are the nursing implications?

It is an invasive procedure used to detect abnormalities in the chambers and valves of the heart. contrast agents are injected into the heart.

Obtain informed consent. The nurse should assess for allergies to iodine and shellfish. Obtain VS. Explain the patient may remain awake. A rapid pulse or a few skipped beats are normal.

14

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Book - Chapter 15

What is a Computed Tomography (CT scan)? What are the nursing implications?

This is procedure that produces computer-generated images with significantly more details than standard x-rays. It is used to identify vessel abnormalities such as an aneurysm. May be done with or without contrast.

The nurse should obtain an informed consent. Assess for allergies to iodine and shellfish. Ensure the client is well hydrated before and after the procedure.

15

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Book - Chapter 15

What is the Electron Beam Computed Tomography (EBCT)? Is this a noninvasive or invasive procedure? What are the nursing implications?

This is a noninvasive imaging study that can detect calcium deposit in coronary arteries. Note: Calcium deposit indicate atherosclerosis and can predict coronary heart disease in people with no symptoms.

The nurse should ask women of childbearing age about possible pregnancy.

16

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Book - Chapter 15

What is a cardiac MRI? What are the nursing implications?

An MRI uses a superagnet and radiofrequency signals. Cardiac MRI shows the thickness of the heart walls, size of the chambers, valve function, and coronary vessel flow.

The client is not exposed to radiation. However, the nurse should inquire about implanted metal or electronic devices.

17

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Book - Chapter 15

What is Radionuclear Scan? What are the nursing implications?

A procedure where a radioactive substance is injected intravenously, and the heart is scanned.

The amount of radioisotope injected is very small. No special radiation precautions are required during or after the scan.

The nurse should encourage fluid intake after the scan to speed elimination of the substance from the body.

18

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Book - Chapter 15


What is a Multigated Aquisition (MUGA) scan? Is this a noninvasive or invasive procedure? What are the nursing implications?

This is an noninvasive procedure used to evaluate heart size, ventricular wall motion and ejection fraction (s/b > 50%). The client's blood is tagged with a radioactive isotope.

The nurse should obtain an informed consent. No food or fluid restriction is required. Note the client's current medications as they may interfere with the results.

19

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Book - Chapter 15

What is an Exercise Profusion Imaging or Thallium Stress Test? What are the nursing implications?

A procedure where thallium-201, a radioisotope is injected during exercise stress testing. The heart is scanned for accumulation of the isotopoe to evaluate perfusion. White on the scan = no muscle damage. Dark image on the screen indicates the thallium is not being absorb and there is damage.

An informed consent is required. Medications that affect the HR and BP is withheld for 24h before the test. NPO 2-3 hours before the test. Advise the client may need to return for follow-up scanning 3 or more hours after the stress test.

20

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Text Book - Chapter 15

The nurse is teaching a client about an upcoming echocardiogram. Which of the information below is accurate?

A. The test provides information about the size and movement of the heart and its structures.
B. This test is noninvasive and simply requires external electrodes to be placed on the arms, legs, and chest.
C. Dye will be injected during this test to illuminate the structures of the heart and blood flow through its chambers and valves.
D. This test is noninvasive, but does expose the client to a magnetic field.

A. The test provides information about the size and movement of the heart and its structures.

20

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Workbook - Chapter 15

A noninvasive test that has been shown to be highly indicative of atherosclerosis is called a(n):

A. ankle-brachial index.
B. ECG.
C. femoral-cephalic index.
D. Holter monitor

A. ankle-brachial index.

21

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Workbook - Chapter 15

Stress testing is used to detect asymptomatic coronary heart disease and may cause:

A. an increase in pulse rate.
B. exhaustion.
C. an increase in stress.
D. a cardiac emergency.

D. a cardiac emergency.

22

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Workbook - Chapter 15

A transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) is:

A. expensive
B. dangerous
C. invasive
D. noninvasive

D. noninvasive

23

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Workbook - Chapter 15

Which of the following is not part of a lipid profile?

A. BNP
B. HDL
C. LDL
D. VLDL

A. BNP