Flashcards in CARDIOVASCULAR- Embryology Deck (60):
What does Truncus arteriosus gives rise to?
Ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk
In heart embriology what gives place to Smooth parts (outflow tract) of left and right ventricles?
What does primitive atria gives rise to?
Trabeculated part of left and right atria
Trabeculated part of left and right ventricles come from
What does Primitive pulmonary vein gives rise to?
Smooth part of left atrium
From where does Coronary sinus comes from?
Left horn of sinus venosus (SV)
Right horn of Sinus venosus gives rise to...
Smooth part of right atrium
Superior Vena Cava comes from...
Right common cardinal vein and right anterior cardinal vein
Which is the first functional organ in vertebrate embryos?
When does the heart starts to beat?
Beats spontaneously by week 4 of development
When does the primary heart tube loops to establish left-rigth polarity?
Begins in week 4 of gestation
What does defect in left-rigth dynenin can lead?
Which syndrome presents dextrocardia? what else does it presents?
Kartagener syndrome (primary ciliary dyskinesia)
Septum primum grows toward endocardial cushions, narrowing foramen primium
First Step of septation of Atria
What happens in Second step of septation of Atria?
Foramen secundum forms in septum primum (foramen primum disappears)
Septum secundum develops as formaen secundum maintains rigth to left shunt
Third Step of septation of Atria
Septum secundum expands and covers most of the formaen secundum. The residual formanen is the foramen ovale
Forth Step of septation of Atria
Which is the fifth Step of septation of Atria?
Remaining portion of septum primum forms valve of foramen ovale
Septum secundum and septum primum fuse to form the atrial septum
Sixth Step of septation of Atria
Which is the final step of Step of septation of Atria?
Foramen ovale closes soon after birth because of ↑ LA pressure
Which is the reason of Patent foramen ovale?
Caused by failure of septum primum and septum secundum to fuse after birth; most are left untreated
Which could be the complications of Patent foramen ovale?
Can lead to paradoxical emboli (venous thromboemboli that enter systemic arterial circulation) similar to those resulting from ASD
Muscular ventricular septum forms. Opening is called interventricular foramen
First step of Septation of Ventricles
Which is the second step of septation of ventricles?
Aorticopulmonary septum rotates and fuses with muscular ventricular septum to form membranous interventricular septum, closing interventricular foramen
This is the last step in Septation of Ventricles
Growth of endocardial cushions separates atria from ventricles and contributes to both atrial septation and membranous portion of the interventricular septum
Where does Ventricular septal defect commonly occurs?
In the membranous septum
This is the clinical manifestation of Ventricular septal defect
Acyanotic at birth due to left to right shunt
Outflow tract formation
Truncus arteriosus rotates; neural crest and endocardial cell migrations→ Trucal and bulbar ridges that spiral and fuse to form aorticopulmonary septum → ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk
Name conotruncal abnormalities
Transposition of great vessels
Tetralogy of Fallot
Persistent truncus arteriosus
From where do Aortic/ pulmonary derived?
From endocardial cushions of outfluw tract
From where do Mitral/ Tricuspid derived?
From fused endocardial cushions of the AV canal
Which are valve anomalies?
Displaced (epstein anomaly)
Where does fetal erytrhopoiesis takes place?
Young Liver Synthesizes Blood
Who manage erythropoiesis in Embryo phase (3-8 weeks)?
In this phase the liver manages Fetal erythropoiesis
6 weeks- birth
From week 10- 28, whi manages Erythropoiesis?
At this age the bone marrow manages erythropoiesis
18 weeks to adult
Which are the components of Fetal hemoglobin (HbF)?
How is Adult hemoglobin normaly composed?
These are the characteristics of HbF
Higher affinity for oxygen due to less avid binding of 2-3 BPG
What allows to extract oxygen from (HbA) maternal hemoglobin across the placenta?
HbF high affinity to oxygen
How os the PO2 in umbilical vein of fetal circulation?
PO2= 30 mmHg
How is the O2 saturation in umbilical vein of fetal circulation?
80% saturation with O2
How is the O2 saturation im umbilical arteries of fetal circulation?
Low O2 saturation
Which are the 3 important shunts in fetal circulation?
Blood entering the fetus through the umbilical vein is conducted via...
Ductus venosus into the IVC to bypass the hepatic circulation
Most highly oxigenated blood reaching the heart via the IVC is diverted through...
Foramen ovale and pumped out the aorta to the head and body
Which is the way Deoxygenated blood entering the RA from the SVC goes?
RA→ RV → main PA → patent ductuts arteriosus → descending aorta; due to high fetal pulmonary artery resistance (due partly to low O2 tension
How is the Ductus arteriosus closed?
At birth, infant takes a breath; ↓ resistance in pulomnary vasculature causes ↑ left atrial pressure vs right atrial pressure; foramen ovale closses (now called fossa ovalis); ↑ in O2 (from respiration) and ↓ in prostaglandins (from placental separation)
These drug help to close PDA (patent)
After Indomethacin closes PDA, what is left?
DA remnant (ligamentum arteriosum)
What keeps PDA open?
Prostaglandins E1 and E2 keep PDA open
Postnatal Umbilical vein becomes...
Ligamentum teres hepatis
Where is contained Ligamentum Teres hepatis?
In Falciform ligament
Fetal Umbilical arteries derivate to...
Medial umbilical ligaments
What happens to Ductus arteriosus and venosus?
They become Ligamentum arteriosum and venosum
This is what happens to Foramen ovale postnatal
What becomes of Allantois?
Urachus median umbilical ligament
What is the urachus?
Is the part of the allantoic duct between the bladder and the umbilicus