CARDIOVASCULAR- Embryology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CARDIOVASCULAR- Embryology Deck (60):
1

What does Truncus arteriosus gives rise to?

Ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk

2

In heart embriology what gives place to Smooth parts (outflow tract) of left and right ventricles?

Bulbus cordis

3

What does primitive atria gives rise to?

Trabeculated part of left and right atria

4

Trabeculated part of left and right ventricles come from

Primitive ventricle

5

What does Primitive pulmonary vein gives rise to?

Smooth part of left atrium

6

From where does Coronary sinus comes from?

Left horn of sinus venosus (SV)

7

Right horn of Sinus venosus gives rise to...

Smooth part of right atrium

8

Superior Vena Cava comes from...

Right common cardinal vein and right anterior cardinal vein

9

Which is the first functional organ in vertebrate embryos?

Heart

10

When does the heart starts to beat?

Beats spontaneously by week 4 of development

11

When does the primary heart tube loops to establish left-rigth polarity?

Begins in week 4 of gestation

12

What does defect in left-rigth dynenin can lead?

Dextrocardia

13

Which syndrome presents dextrocardia? what else does it presents?

Kartagener syndrome (primary ciliary dyskinesia)

14

Septum primum grows toward endocardial cushions, narrowing foramen primium

First Step of septation of Atria

15

What happens in Second step of septation of Atria?

Foramen secundum forms in septum primum (foramen primum disappears)

16

Septum secundum develops as formaen secundum maintains rigth to left shunt

Third Step of septation of Atria

17

Septum secundum expands and covers most of the formaen secundum. The residual formanen is the foramen ovale

Forth Step of septation of Atria

18

Which is the fifth Step of septation of Atria?

Remaining portion of septum primum forms valve of foramen ovale

19

Septum secundum and septum primum fuse to form the atrial septum

Sixth Step of septation of Atria

20

Which is the final step of Step of septation of Atria?

Foramen ovale closes soon after birth because of ↑ LA pressure

21

Which is the reason of Patent foramen ovale?

Caused by failure of septum primum and septum secundum to fuse after birth; most are left untreated

22

Which could be the complications of Patent foramen ovale?

Can lead to paradoxical emboli (venous thromboemboli that enter systemic arterial circulation) similar to those resulting from ASD

23

Muscular ventricular septum forms. Opening is called interventricular foramen

First step of Septation of Ventricles

24

Which is the second step of septation of ventricles?

Aorticopulmonary septum rotates and fuses with muscular ventricular septum to form membranous interventricular septum, closing interventricular foramen

25

This is the last step in Septation of Ventricles

Growth of endocardial cushions separates atria from ventricles and contributes to both atrial septation and membranous portion of the interventricular septum

26

Where does Ventricular septal defect commonly occurs?

In the membranous septum

27

This is the clinical manifestation of Ventricular septal defect

Acyanotic at birth due to left to right shunt

28

Outflow tract formation

Truncus arteriosus rotates; neural crest and endocardial cell migrations→ Trucal and bulbar ridges that spiral and fuse to form aorticopulmonary septum → ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk

29

Name conotruncal abnormalities

Transposition of great vessels
Tetralogy of Fallot
Persistent truncus arteriosus

30

From where do Aortic/ pulmonary derived?

From endocardial cushions of outfluw tract

31

From where do Mitral/ Tricuspid derived?

From fused endocardial cushions of the AV canal

32

Which are valve anomalies?

Stenotic
Regurgitant
Atretic
Displaced (epstein anomaly)

33

Where does fetal erytrhopoiesis takes place?

Young Liver Synthesizes Blood
Yolk sac
Liver
Spleen
Bone marrow

34

Who manage erythropoiesis in Embryo phase (3-8 weeks)?

Yolk salk

35

In this phase the liver manages Fetal erythropoiesis

6 weeks- birth

36

From week 10- 28, whi manages Erythropoiesis?

Spleen

37

At this age the bone marrow manages erythropoiesis

18 weeks to adult

38

Which are the components of Fetal hemoglobin (HbF)?

α2γ2

39

How is Adult hemoglobin normaly composed?

α2β2

40

These are the characteristics of HbF

Higher affinity for oxygen due to less avid binding of 2-3 BPG

41

What allows to extract oxygen from (HbA) maternal hemoglobin across the placenta?

HbF high affinity to oxygen

42

How os the PO2 in umbilical vein of fetal circulation?

PO2= 30 mmHg

43

How is the O2 saturation in umbilical vein of fetal circulation?

80% saturation with O2

44

How is the O2 saturation im umbilical arteries of fetal circulation?

Low O2 saturation

45

Which are the 3 important shunts in fetal circulation?

Ductus venosus
Foramen ovale
Ductus arterious

46

Blood entering the fetus through the umbilical vein is conducted via...

Ductus venosus into the IVC to bypass the hepatic circulation

47

Most highly oxigenated blood reaching the heart via the IVC is diverted through...

Foramen ovale and pumped out the aorta to the head and body

48

Which is the way Deoxygenated blood entering the RA from the SVC goes?

RA→ RV → main PA → patent ductuts arteriosus → descending aorta; due to high fetal pulmonary artery resistance (due partly to low O2 tension

49

How is the Ductus arteriosus closed?

At birth, infant takes a breath; ↓ resistance in pulomnary vasculature causes ↑ left atrial pressure vs right atrial pressure; foramen ovale closses (now called fossa ovalis); ↑ in O2 (from respiration) and ↓ in prostaglandins (from placental separation)

50

These drug help to close PDA (patent)

Indomethacin

51

After Indomethacin closes PDA, what is left?

DA remnant (ligamentum arteriosum)

52

What keeps PDA open?

Prostaglandins E1 and E2 keep PDA open

53

Postnatal Umbilical vein becomes...

Ligamentum teres hepatis

54

Where is contained Ligamentum Teres hepatis?

In Falciform ligament

55

Fetal Umbilical arteries derivate to...

Medial umbilical ligaments

56

What happens to Ductus arteriosus and venosus?

They become Ligamentum arteriosum and venosum

57

This is what happens to Foramen ovale postnatal

Fossa ovalis

58

What becomes of Allantois?

Urachus median umbilical ligament

59

What is the urachus?

Is the part of the allantoic duct between the bladder and the umbilicus

60

What happens to Notochord postnatally?

Nucleus pulposus of invertebral disc