Flashcards in Cardiovascular Health 3.2 (Heart): Stem cells to the rescue? Deck (18):
What are induced pluripotent stem cells?
Reprogrammed somatic stem cells using transcription factors.
What are two disadvantages for stem cell transplantation?
-Risk of arrythmia in hearts
Can cardiomyocytes be induced from somatic cells?
Yes, but very difficult.
What are two benefits of cardiomyocyte transplants?
Low risk of immune rejection, and stem cells needed for inducing them can be found easily in fat and blood.
What are 3 distadvantage of cardiomyocyte transplantation?
-Limited proliferative potential, cant divide indefinitely.
-Low cardiogenic potential.
What are skeletal myoblasts? Can they be used in heart transplantation?
Undifferentiated skeletal muscle cells.
Problematic for transplant in hearts as they dont electrically integrate with the heart when differentiated.
What is a cardiac resident stem cell?
Isolated from the heart itself, there are many different kinds.
What are caridopoietic stem cells? How are they induced?
Not natural, induced from bone marrow derived cells. Reprogrammed/induced via drugs.
Why is not use cardiac resident stem cells?
Hard to isolate as heart tissue is vital, and not readily available. Use from another individual presents immunological problems.
How are cardiac resident stem cells obtained?
Heart tissue harvested following surgery.
Cells are cultured and purified using antibodies.
What can cardiac resident cells turn into?
Cardiac cells, vascular cells, bone and fat.
What happens after a myocardial infarct?
Necrosis of heart tissue occurs. Immune cells are attracted, which secrete enzymes that break down the extracellular matrix.
What secretes extracellular matrix?
Following heart tissue necrosis after a myocardial infarct, what happens to surrounding heart tissue?
They have compensatory hypertrophy.
What is the paracrine effect in the heart (name 4)?
Cells secrete factors to alleviate effects such as preventing apoptosis, inflammaton, secreting growth and angiogenesis factors.
Does stem cell quality differ by age? What about healthy vs diseased (diabetic)?
Yes, young stem cells are better and more viable than older ones. Same with healthy vs diseased.
Besides health state and age, what else affects stem cell quality and viability (name 2)?
Method of isolation
Culture serum used