Flashcards in Cardiovascular Health Lecture 1.1 : Programming developmental disease risk Deck (25):
What is considered a low birth weight?
What is low birth weight caused by in the Western world?
What is low birth weight caused by in the third world?
What is maternal disease?
Diseases affecting bloodflow to the placenta, can be genetic
What percentage of babies does low birth weight affect?
10% of births are low weight
By how many fold does pernatal fatality increase in low birth babbies?
2-3 fold increase
What is the common feature of all low weight births, both first and third worlds?
Deficiency in nutrient transfer
Which diseases are low weight babbies at increased risk of (name 4)?
Adult diseases such as diabetes, obesity, renal and cardiovascular diseases
What happens when a foetus is exposed to a suboptimal environment, short term and long term? What is this called?
It causes short term adaptation, but long term susceptibility to future adult diseases. Called foetal programming.
Are there sex specific differences in future disease risk in low weight babbies?
Yes, boys are at higher risk than girls in general.
Is a low weight birth different to premature birth?
Yes, they are different.
Do small babbies experience accelerated growth?
Yes, 90% of small babies habe accelerated growth.
What is excessive late accelerated growth associated with?
Is early growth good in small babies?
Is late growth good in small babbies?
What is the mother's breast milk like when the baby is low weight, and why is this so?
It is lower quality to match it to the babby's needs.
Do lactation periods affect future disease risk?
What can be said of a low weight male baby's nephron count?
They have 30% less.
What happens to a low weight male baby's blood pressure? Is this true of females?
Low weight males have high blood pressure, but females do not.
What can be said of the pancreas in low weight births?
Deficient in pancreatic beta cells.
How can the consequences of low weight birth be averted (name 2)? What period is critical?
Early action via exercise. Cross fostering prevents almost all deficiencies.
Post natal condition is critical.
Can deficiencies and susceptibility to disease be transmitted to future generations in small males and females?
Little evidence in males but strong evidence for females.
What happens when a small female becomes pregnant?
Develop many adverse conditions such as glucose intolerance.
What exacerbates the pregnancy induced adverse conditions of small females?
A high fat diet.