Cardiovascular Physiology Flashcards Preview

Biology 14 Exam 3 > Cardiovascular Physiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular Physiology Deck (96):
1

What are two ways that cardiovascular fluid can travel?

Diffusion and bulk flow through vessels/ chambers with one way valves

2

What is a disadvantage of diffusion?

It is slow over long distances

3

What kind of organism uses diffusion?

Bacteria

4

What kind of valves do we have in the cardiovascular system?

One-way valves

5

What are three ways that circulatory systems move fluid? Which on uses skeletal muscle?

Contractile Chamber
External Pump*
Peristaltic Contraction

*Uses skeletal muscle

6

What are the two types of circulatory systems?

OPEN CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
CLOSED CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

7

For an open circulatory system...
What pumps the fluid?
What is the fluid called?
Are there cells in the fluid?
What are the vessels called?

- Heart
- Hemolymph
- No cells (no red blood cells)
- Sinuses, together are Hemocoel

8

For an open circulatory system...
What pumps the fluid?
What is the fluid called?
Are there cells in the fluid?

- Heart
- Blood
- Yes, red blood cells

9

What is one advantage for an open circulatory system? How about for closed?

Open- Allows oxygen diffusion directly to tissues
Closed- Can get oxygen to tissues RAPIDLY and SELECTIVELY

10

What is the fluid in blood called?

Plasma

11

What do both open and closed fluids have?

Proteins

12

What is unique to closed fluid?

Cells (red blood cells)

13

Name another system that may be part of a closed circulatory system? What is its function?

The LYMPHATIC SYSTEM, collects the fluid that leaks out of capillaries (LYMPH) and returns it to the circulatory system

14

Name five organisms with no circulatory system...

Hydra
Planaria
Nematoad
Starfish
Sponge

15

Name four organisms with open circulatory systems

Leech
Insects (Ants, bees)
Mollusks
Crustacians (lobster, crab)

16

Name one class of animals with closed circulatory systems? What is another animal that has a closed circulatory system? How about another?

Vertebrates
the Squid
the Earthworm

17

How does fluid move if no circulatory system?

Bulk flow

18

What is the difference between diffusion and bulk flow?

Diffusion is movement down a concentration gradient, bulk flow is a movement because of pressure!

19

What are leeches/worms called? Do leeches/different types of worms have different types of circulatory systems?

Annelids
Yes! some open, some closed

20

Describe the difference between an open and closed circulatory system

Open system doesn't have vessels returning fluid to the heart, while closed system is a closed loop of vessels

21

What are the holes in the wall of the heart that allow the heart of an open circulatory system to fill with blood?

Ostia

22

What are the two phases of blood movement? Describe them in an open circulatory system

- Systole and Diastole
- Systole: ostia close, heart contracts, blood pumped out
- Diastole: ostia open, heart relaxes, blood drawn into heart

23

What kind of circulatory system does the frog have?

Closed circulatory system

24

How many chambers does the frog heart have?

3

25

What kind of circulation does the frog have? What does this mean?

Pulmocutaneous circulation: means that blood flows to both skin and lungs to get oxygen

26

Describe the path of blood through the frog circulatory system...

Blood is pumped out of single ventricle, goes to tissues via SYSTEMIC ARTERY or to skin and lungs via PULMOCUTANEOUS ARTERY, which splits to the CUTANOUS ARTERY (skin) and PUMLOMARY ARTERY (lungs). Returns to right atrium from tissues via SINUS VENOSUS, or to left atrium via PULMONARY VEIN.

27

What does the frog do to adapt to changing conditions?

Regulates the amount of blood that is sent to the lungs vs. skin

28

What is it called when the blood goes from heart, to lungs and skin, then back to heart, then to tissues? Name two animals

DOUBLE-CIRCUIT CLOSED SYSTEM
Frog and rat

29

What is it called if the blood goes from the heart, to the gills/lungs, to the tissues, then back to the heart? Name two animals

SINGLE-CIRCUIT CLOSED SYSTEM
Lizard and fish

30

What kind of circulatory system do mammals have?

Double-circuit closed circulatory system

31

What is heart size proportional to?

Body mass

32

How do heart rates vary with body size?

Inversely proportional

33

What is the avg human heart beat? How about a very fit human?

Average: 72
Fit: 40

34

What happens to a snake heart when it eats a big meal? What does this mean?

It HYPERTROPHIES, meaning it gets BIGGER

35

Name the four chambers of a shark/bony fish heart

1) sinus venosus
2) atrium
3) ventricle
4) arteriosus

36

What is the name for heart muscle? What are the two types? What is the difference between the two types?

- Myocardium (spongy and compact)
- Spongy myocardium allows blood to mix with heart tissues, so muscle gets oxygen, while compact myocardium doesn't allow for mixing, so heart needs a special artery to provide it with blood.

37

Name the three layers of the heart wall in a human...

Endocardium, myocardium, pericardium

38

What artery carries blood to and through the heart? What layer does it flow through?

CORONARY ARTERY, flows through the myocardium

39

What does the pericardium hold? What is its function?

The pericardial fluid in the pericardial cavity, protects the heart if it is pumped

40

Name the layers of a frog heart wall

Endocardium, spongy myocardium, compact myocardiu, pericardium

41

Does a frog have a coronary artery? Comment

yes it does, but it is more of a sinus, doesn't provide as much blood like in humans, rather frog gets blood from spongy myocardium

42

Describe the path of blood through the human heart!

Blood enters the RIGHT ATRIUM from the SUPERIOR VENA CAVA (collects blood from upper body) and INFERIOR VENA CAVA (collects blood from lower body). It passes through the RIGHT AV (Tricuspid Valve), and into the RIGHT VENTRICLE. It is pumped through the PULMONARY SEMI-LUNAR VALVE and carried to the lungs via the RIGHT AND LEFT PULMONARY ARTERIES. It is carried back to the heart by the RIGHT AND LEFT PULMONARY VEINS into the LEFT ATRIUM. It enters the LEFT VENTRICLE via the LEFT AV VALVE (bicuspid valve), and is pumped out the AORTIC SEMI-LUNAR VALVE into the AORTA.

43

How many pouches do SEMI LUNAR VALVES have? Describe how they work

- 3 pouches
- They work b/c they are like flaps, so they can get blown open one way, but catch blood and squeeze shut if it tries to flow back the other way

44

What does AV Valve stand for?

Atrioventricular Valve

45

What anchors the AV value to the wall? How does the AV valve work?

CHORDAE TENDINEAE
- Works like a parachute, only catching air one way

46

What is the cause of heart murmers? Name two specifics

Defective valves! Can either be too narrow when open, or can be leaky when closed

47

What provides the baby with oxygen?

Oxygenated blood from placenta via umbilical cord

48

What's interesting about fetal lungs?

They receive oxygenated blood from mother

49

What happens to the umbilical veins and arteries?

They turn into ligaments

50

Name two modifications that alter blood flow in the fetal heart. What do they connect? What is their purpose?

DUCTUS ARTERIOSIS- connects pulmonary artery to aorta
FORAMEN OVALE- connects right and left atria
Both shunt blood away from the lungs

51

What happens to the modifications when the baby is born?

They both close!

52

What are the two phases of the cardiac cycle? Describe them

Systole: contraction of the atria and ventricles
Diastole: relaxation of the atria and ventricles

53

How long does systole and diastole take?

systole: 0.3 sec
dialstole: 0.5 sec

54

What can we say about the contraction of the atria vs the ventricles?

The atria contract first and relax first

55

What is the combination of systole and diastole called?

The Cardiac Cycle

56

What are the two phases of diastole? What does each involve?

1) Isovolumetric ventricular relaxation: All valves closed, atria and vntricle relaxed.
2) Ventricular filling: AV valve opens, allows ventricle to fill, atria contracts slightly to pump more blood into ventricle
*Note: this happens to both atria and ventricles simulatneously

57

What are the two phases of systole? What does each involve?

1) Isovolumetric Ventricular contraction: Ventricles contract, AV Valve closes
2) Ventricular ejection: Ventricles contract, Semilunar valve opens, blood flows out

58

What is the driving force behind blood flow?

Pressure differences

59

What does EDV stand for? What is it?

End Diastolic Volume: Volume in ventricle at end of diastole

60

What does ESV stand for? What is it?

End systolic volume, volume in ventricle at end of systole

61

Define stroke volume (words and equation)

SV= EDV - ESV
Volume ejected per beat from each ventricle!

62

Define cardial output (two equations)

Cardiac Output= SV* heart rate

Cardiac Output= Mean arterial pressure (MAP) / Total peripheral resistance (TPR)

63

What is stroke volume compared to EDV?

stroke volume= 60% of EDV, so only 60% of full ventricle is pumped out

64

Name and define the three determinants of stroke volume

1) Preload: how much blood can we cram into the ventricle (stretching)
2) Contractility: the strength of contraction
3) Afterload: the pressure that must be overcome to pump blood out (pressure in the aorta)

65

What is the main determinant of preload? What affects this?

EDV!
Affected by how stretchy the heart walls are

66

Name two determinants of EDV

1) venous return: the more blood that flows into the atrium, the more we fill the ventricle
2) duration of ventricular diasole: the longer the relaxation, the more filling can occur

67

What happens when more blood fills the ventricle? What is the names for this phenomenon?

- The ventricle contraction is stronger!
- Called the Frank-Starling Mechanism

68

What is an important result of the Frank-Starling Mechanism?

It equalizes the output of the left and right side of the heart!

69

What does the strength of contraction affect?

The STROKE VOLUME

70

What do we call the substances that affect the strength of contractility?

Inotropic Agents

71

What two things do inotropic agents affect? Do they increase or decrease

1) Strength of contraction
2) Heart rate
INCREASE

72

Name three inotropic agents

1) Epinephrine
2) Calcium channel blockers
3) Digoxing

73

What plant does Digoxin come from?

the Foxglove plant

74

Sympathetic activity leads to...

Greater stroke volume!

75

What is the normal level of heart activity called?

Basal level

76

What is the pressure that must be overcome to open the semilunar valves?

Systemic Resistance

77

Name two things that increase afterload

- Hypertension

- Atherosclerosis

78

Which side of the heart has greater pressures?

The LEFT side

79

Name the four parts of the hear in order of greatest pressure generated

Left ventricle, right ventricle, left atrium, right atrium

80

What does a high afterload cause? (two things)

- Dilated cardiomyopathy (stretching and enlarging or heart chambers)

- Congestive heart failure

81

Discuss the conduction system in the heart

The Sinoatrial Node (SA Node), depolarizes, causing the atrium to contract. The atroventricular (AV) node recieves the signal from the AV node. It delays, then sends the signal through the Bundle of His and the Purkinje Fibers, causing the ventricles to contract. These cells never rest, they are always depolarizing or repolarizing. The SA node is always driving the AV node.

82

What do we call the SA and AV nodes? What do they do?

Pacemaker Cells. Fire spontaneouly and rhythmically

83

What are the Purkinje fibers and what do they do?

Specialized cardiac cells, conduct impulses rapidly

84

Discuss the flow of ions during the depolarizing and repolarizing phase...

Pacemaker causes an influx of Na and and outflux of K. Once the action potential starts, Ca pours in. As the action potential winds down, Ca pours out and K pours in.

85

Name three types of Pacemaker cells with impulses/min, location and function

- SA node: Fast Pacemaker (100/min), right atrium, begins heart activity
- AV node: Medium Pacemaker (40-60/min), atrial septum, transmits SA node signal to Bundle of His
-Bundle of His: Slow Pacemaker (20/min) Connects atria and ventricles, spreads signal

86

The bundle of his is the _____ connection between the atria and ventricles

Only

87

How does the electrical signal spread between heart cells? All cardiac cells are _________

Gap Junctions!
Electrically coupled

88

What two types of stimulation affect heart rate? What do they do? How do they achieve this (what do they alter)?

Parasympathetic -> beats slower
Sympathetic -> beats faster

They cause FASTER or SLOWER DEPOLARIZATION

89

Describe the stimulation of the heart pathway

The CARDIOVASCULAR CONTROL CENTER (in the MEDULLA) stimulates the SYMPATHETIC NEURONS, which causes the release of NOREPINEPHRINE (from sympathetic nervous system) and EPINEPHRINE from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. This attaches to the BETA RECEPTORS of the PACEMAKER CELLS, leading to an activation of CAMP by ADENALINE CYCLASE, leading to an activation of PKA, leading to the opening of FUNNY (Na) CHANNELS and Ca CHANNELS, leading to a depolarization and an increase in heart rate.

90

Describe the paraympathetic inhibition of heart rate pathway

The CARDIOVASCULAR CONTROL CENTER (in the MEDULLA) stimulates the PARASYMPATHETIC NEURONS, which release ACETYLCHOLINE, which binds to the MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS on the PACEMAKER CELLS, this causes a HYPERPOLARIZATION (K out, Ca in), which makes it harder to depolarize the heart and DECREASES HEART RATE.

91

What nerve causes parasympathetic stimulation?

the Vagus Nerve

92

The cardiac action potential is longer/shorter than skeletal muscle, because of a _________ created by

longer
calcium plateau, slow Ca channels

93

What is the purpose of the long duration of cardiac action potential?

Allows for development of contraction

94

How do we "look at heart beats"? What does it measure?

We use an EKG / ECG. It measures the electrical currents of the heart at the surface of the body.

95

Name the parts of an EKG. What does each represent.

p-wave: atrial depolarization

QRS complex: ventricular depolarization

t-wave: ventricular repolarization

96

Name and describe one issue that can be seen on an EKG

Atrioventricular (AV) block: Lack of coordination between P wave and QRS complex