Cardiovascular System Flashcards Preview

LSS Year 1 > Cardiovascular System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular System Deck (488)
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1

In what cavity does the heart lie?

In the mediastinum

2

What is the pericardium?

Fibroserous sac surrounding the heart and it's great vessels

3

What are the layers that make up the pericardium?

Consists of 2 layers:
- Fibrous
- Serous
Serous has two parts:
- Parietal: lines fibrous
- Visceral: adheres to heart

4

How does blood flow around the heart, starting in the right atrium?

Blood flows from right atrium, through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. It then flows through the pulmonary semilunar valve into the pulmonary artery to the lungs, becomes oxygenated and returns to the lungs in the pulmonary veins into the left atrium. It flows through the mitral valve into the left ventricle and is then pumped through the aortic semilunar valve into the ascending aorta

5

What vessels feed into the right atrium?

Superior and inferior vena cava

6

What vessel leaves the right ventricle?

The pulmonary trunk (left and right pulmonary artery)

7

What vessels enter the left atrium?

Pulmonary veins (left and right superior and inferior)

8

What vessel leaves the left ventricle?

Aorta

9

What vessels branch off the aortic arch?

1) Brachiocephalic truck (right subclavian artery and right common corotid artery)
2) Left common corotid artery
3) Left subclavian artery

10

What veins feed into the superior vena cava?

Left and right internal jugular vein and subclavian vein feed into the left and right brachiocephalic vein which feeds into the the superior vena cava

11

What tendons connect the tricuspid valve to the papillary muscles?

Chordae tendineae

12

What is the function of chordae tendineae?

Prevents the tricuspid valve from prolapse or inversion into the right atrium

13

What is the function of the papillary muscles?

Connects to the tricuspid valve with the chordae tendineae to prevent inversion or prolapse

14

What cusps make up the tricuspid valve?

1) Anterior cusp
2) Septal cusp
3) Posterior cusp

15

What cusps make up the pulmonary valve?

1) Anterior semilunar cusp
2) Right semilunar cusp
3) Left semilunar cusp

16

What valves make up the mitral valve?

1) Anterior cusp
2) Posterior cusp

17

What are trebeculae carnae?

Papillary muscles which pulls on chordae tendineae and aid blood flow, preventing suction

18

What are the nodes of the heart?

Sinoatrial (SA) node
Atrioventricular (AV) node

19

What are the internodal tracts of the left atrium?

1) Anterior internodal tract
2) Middle internodal tract
3) Posterior internodal tract

20

What node causes contraction of the atria?

sinoatrial node (SA)

21

What are the conduction tracts of the atria?

Anterior, middle and posterior internodal tract and Bachmann's bundle

22

What are the conduction tracts of the ventricles?

Left and right bundle branch

23

What node causes contraction of the ventricles?

Atrioventricular node

24

What is the function of Purkinje fibres?

They carry the contraction impulse from the left and right bundle branch to the myocardium of the ventricles

25

How big are ventricular cells?

100μm long and 15μm wide

26

Where is calcium stored in the heart?

In the sarcoplasmic reticulum

27

What calcium channel is found on T-tubules?

L-type Ca channel

28

What channel allows Ca to leave the sarcoplasmic reticulum in the heart?

Ryanodine receptors

29

How is Ca removed from the cytoplasm, back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum in the heart?

SR Ca ATPase

30

What exchanger keeps the level of Ca at a steady state inside cardiac cells?

Na/Ca exchanger