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Year 1 LSS 1 > Cardiovascular System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular System Deck (29)
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1

In which vessels is capacitance greatest?

A. Aorta
B. Arterioles
C. Capillaries
D. Venules
E. Vena Cava

D. Venules

Veins/venules generally act as a reservoir within the body; therefore, capacitance is greatest in the small, highly numerous venules in the venous system

2

At rest, the distribution of blood is least to which of the following?

A. Liver & gut
B. Heart
C. Bones
D. Muscle
E. Brain

C. Bones

A = 20%
B = 5%
C = 3%
D = 15%
E = 15%

3

Which part of the blood vessels synthesises antithrombotic factors?

A. Tunica Adventitia
B. Tunica Media
C. Vasa Vasora
D. Endothelium
E. Basement membrane

D. Endothelium

4

Left coronary dominance implies which of the following?

A. SA node is supplied by the left coronary artery
B. AVN node is supplied by the left coronary artery
C. Right atrium is supplied by left coronary artery
D. Right coronary artery supplies posterior descending artery
E. Left circumflex artery supplies posterior descending artery

E. Left circumflex artery supplies posterior descending artery

5

Which of the following is a measure of afterload?

A. End diastolic volume
B. End diastolic pressure
C. Right atrial pressure
D. Right ventrical pressure
E. Diastolic arterial pressure

E. Diastolic arterial pressure

A, B, C --> Preload
D --> Neither

6

Which of the following stores Ca2+ for release in myocyte contraction?

A. T-tubule
B. L-type voltage gated channel
C. Myofilament
D. Terminus cisternae of sarcoplasmic reticulum
E. Actin filaments

D. Terminus cisternae of sarcoplasmic reticulum

7

The affinity of Troponin C and Ca2+ increases with which of the following:

A. Increased Ca2+ levels
B. Increased presence of Tropinin C
C. Increased presence of Tropinin I
D. Stretch
E. Increased myosin binding sites

D. Stretch

Affinity of Tropinin C increases with stretch

8

Which of the following does NOT occur when you stand up?

A. Veins constrict
B. Arteries constrict
C. Heart rate is reduced
D. Myocytes contract more forcefully
E. Skeletal muscle contract

C. Heart rate is reduced

Heart rate is INCREASED, along with force of contraction

9

Regarding the physical properties of blood, which of the following statements is CORRECT?

A. Increased haematocrit reduces blood viscosity
B. High flow rates lead to increased blood viscosity
C. Moderately small vessel diameters decrease blood viscosity
D. Blood always behaves as a Newtonian fluid
E. Blood in capillaries exhibits decreased blood viscosity

C. Moderately small vessel diameters decrease blood viscosity

Below diameters of 100 μm, the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect leads to erythrocytes being aligned down the middle of vessels, thus leaving cell-free space between the cells and the vessel wall --> Decreased blood viscosity. However, at even smaller vessel diameters where erythrocytes are deformed (such as in capillaries), the cell-free layer is lost, increasing blood viscosity

10

Which ECG phase goes with the proper cardiac event?
A. P wave - A depolarisation of the AV node
B. T-wave - A repolarisation of the atria
C. QRS-wave - A repolarisation of the ventricles
D. QRS wave - A depolarisation of the ventricles
E. P-wave - A depolarisation of the ventricles

D. QRS wave - A depolarisation of the ventricles

11

Regarding the physical properties of blood, which of the following statements is CORRECT?

A. Increased haematocrit reduces blood viscosity
B. High flow rates lead to increased blood viscosity
C. Moderately small vessel diameters decrease blood viscosity
D. Blood always behaves as a Newtonian fluid
E. Blood in capillaries exhibits decreased blood viscosity

C. Moderately small vessel diameters decrease blood viscosity

Below diameters of 100 μm, the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect leads to erythrocytes being aligned down the middle of vessels, thus leaving cell-free space between the cells and the vessel wall --> Decreased blood viscosity. However, at even smaller vessel diameters where erythrocytes are deformed (such as in capillaries), the cell-free layer is lost, increasing blood viscosity

12

Regarding Laplace’s Law, which of the following statements is CORRECT?

A. In aortic aneurysm there is increased circumferential stress
B. Wall tension is inversely proportional to pressure
C. Pressure is proportional to wall radius
D. In aortic aneurysm there is thickening of the vessel wall
E. Circumferential stress is inversely proportional to pressure

A. In aortic aneurysm there is increased circumferential stress

In aortic aneurysm, there is THINNING of the vessel wall. Wall thickness is inversely proportional to circumferential stress --> Increased stress and vessel distension.
Laplace’s Law:

13

Which of the following statements is INCORRECT?

A. Aortic stenosis can lead to myocardial ischaemia
B. Aortic stenosis increases afterload
C. Aortic regurgitation leads to left ventricular volume overload
D. Mitral regurgitation produces a low pitched diastolic murmur
E. Aortic stenosis produces a mid-systolic murmur

D. Mitral regurgitation produces a low pitched diastolic murmur

Mitral regurgitation produces a pansystolic murmur = starts at S1 and extend up to S2; usually due to regurgitation in cases such as mitral regurgitation, tricuspid regurgitation, or ventricular septal defect (VSD).

14

Which of these factors will NOT predispose an atherosclerotic plaque to rupturing?

A. High collagen content
B. Neovascularistion
C. Large, eccentric lipid-rich core
D. Thin plaque
E. Infiltration of macrophages and T cells

A. High collagen content

15

Match each blood vessel to its description:
A. Continuous capillary 1. Have semilunar valves to prevent backflow
B. Sinusoid capillary 2. Are a site of white cell exchange, highly permeable
C. Fenestrated capillary 3. Have windows in their epithelial cells, bridged by membranes
D. Arteriole 4. Have tight junctions between epithelial cells
E. Vein 5. Main regulators of resistance

A --> 4
B --> 2
C --> 3
D --> 5
E --> 1

16

The relationship between intracellular [Ca] and contractile force is:

A. Sigmoid
B. Linear
C. Parabolic
D. Horizontal

A. Sigmoid

17

True or false: preload...
A. Is determined by mean arterial pressure
B. Decreases the degree and velocity of shortening when it is increased
C. Is the force associated with the initial stretch in the ventricle
D. Can be measured by the central venous pressure in the right side of the heart

A. Is determined by mean arterial pressure
FALSE - True for afterload

B. Decreases the degree and velocity of shortening when it is increased
FALSE - True for afterload

C. Is the force associated with the initial stretch in the ventricle
TRUE

D. Can be measured by the central venous pressure in the right side of the heart
TRUE

18

True or false: isovolumetric contraction:

A. Is initiated by the opening of the semi-lunar valves
B. The stage in which a 4th heart sound would be heard in congestive heart failure, pulmonary embolism or tricuspid incompetence
C. Represents the interval between AV valve opening and semi-lunar valve closing
D. Represents the interval between AV valve closing and semi-lunar valve opening

A. Is initiated by the opening of the semi-lunar valves
FALSE

B. The stage in which a 4th heart sound would be heard in congestive heart failure, pulmonary embolism or tricuspid incompetence
FALSE

C. Represents the interval between AV valve opening and semi-lunar valve closing
FALSE

D. Represents the interval between AV valve closing and semi-lunar valve opening
TRUE

19

The tunica adventitia contains:

A. Smooth muscle and elastic tissues
B. Endothelium, basement membrane and internal elastic lamina
C. Collagen, nerves and vasa vasora

C. Collagen, nerves and vasa vasora

A = Tunica media
B = Tunica intima/interna

20

The equation for mean arterial blood pressure is:

A. Diastolic blood pressure + pulse pressure
B. Stroke volume x total peripheral resistance
C. Systolic blood pressure + diastolic blood pressure / 2
D. Diastolic blood pressure + 1/3(systolic blood pressure – diastolic blood pressure)
E. Resistance x 1/3 Heart Rate

D. Diastolic blood pressure + 1/3(systolic blood pressure – diastolic blood pressure)

21

The Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect is due to:

A. Axial streaming
B. Turbulent flow
C. High haematocrit near the walls of blood vessels
D. High measured viscosity

A. Axial streaming

22

Systemic hypertension in the body can be caused by which of the following?

A. Myocardial thickening of the left ventricle
B. The cardiac action due to ventricular tachycardia
C. High amount of aldosterone section
D. Hypoxia that results from respiratory failure
E. Overuse of diuretics

C. High amount of aldosterone section

23

A pulmonary embolism in a 50-y/o man usually is a cause of decreasing:

A. V/Q ratios in the lungs
B. Pulmonary Vascular resistance
C. RA pressure
D. LA pressure
E. Partial pressure of oxygen in the pulmonary venous blood

B. Pulmonary Vascular resistance

24

The sinoatrial node is:

A. Found in both the left and right atrium
B. Linked to the AV node by Purkinje fibres
C. Innervated by the vagus nerve
D. Located in the right ventricle

C. Innervated by the vagus nerve

25

If the left ventricle fails, you will tend to have an increase in which of the following?

A. Pressure in the LA
B. Lung compliance
C. Pulmonary edema
D. LV ejection fraction

A. Pressure in the LA

26

Which of the following answers is the correct order of pressures during isovolumetric contraction during a normal cardiac cycle?

A. LV > aortic > LA
B. Aortic > LA> LV
C. LA > aortic > LV
D. Aortic > LV > LA
E. LV > LA > aortic

D. Aortic > LV > LA

27

Bradycardia indicates a heart rate of:

A. < 90 bpm
B. < 70 bpm
C. < 60 bpm
D. < 50 bpm
E. < 40 bpm

D. < 50 bpm

28

Inflammation and platelet production are reduced, when taking aspirin, through the inhibition of which enzyme?

A. Cyclo-oxyenase
B. Gyanylyl cyclase
C. Aldolase
D. Acetylcholinesterase
E. Glycoronyl Transferase

A. Cyclo-oxyenase

29

In a normal ECG output, 1 second is represented by how many small squares?

A. 15
B. 20
C. 25
D. 30
E. 35

C. 25