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Flashcards in Cards Deck (77):
1

How do you calculate total magnificationsas

Eyepiece lens x objective lens

2

Define the term resolution

Resolution is the ability to distinguish between two separate points in an image

3

What is the role of the nucleus

Contains DNA in the form of chromosomes. Contains the genetic code.

4

What is the role cytoplasm in a cell

This is where chemcial reactions take place

5

What is the function of the cell membrane

Controls what enters and leaves the cells.

6

What is function of the mitochondria is cells

This is the site of respiration.
Glucose + Oxyen --> Carbon dioxide + water vapour + ATP energy

7

Define the word 'magnification'

Magnification is how much bigger an image is compared to it's actual size.
Can be calculated by using the IAM triange.

8

Function of the cellulose cell wall

This is outer layer of plant cells. It is made of cellulose. It gives the plant strength and support.

9

Why are ribosomes needed in a cell?

Ribosomes are the site (location) where proteins are made.

10

What is the function of chloroplasts in plant cells?

Chloroplasts contain a green chemcial called chlorophyll. It traps sunlight energy which is needed for photosynthesis.

11

Magnification

It's how large the image is compared to it's natural size.

12

Prokaryotic cells

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13

Dilute

Dilute solution
More water molecules but less solute E.G. Salt, etc...
Animal cell E.G. Skin cell, etc...
Dilute = lysis
Plant cell E.G.
Dilute= Turgid


14

Cytokinesis

The cytoplasm and cell membrane divide. Two new identical cells are formed.

15

Organ system

Lots of organs working together in a system E.G. Circulatory system, etc...

16

Carbohydrates

On our bio course-
Carbohydrates
Fats 
Proteins 
Vitamins
Carbohydrates
Give us energy.
There are 3 types of carbohydrates;
Sugar, starch and fibre. 
Starch and sugar give us energy.
Fibre prevents constipation.
Carbohydrates are made up of chains of simple sugars E.G. Glucose, etc...

17

Haemoglobin

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18

Resolution

Resolution
It's the ability to distinguish between 2 points.
General formula for standard index form
-Ax10n

19

Plasmid

-

20

Concentrated

Concentrated solution
Less water molecules but more solute E.G. Sugar, etc...
Animal cell E.G. Skin cell, etc...
Concentrated= Crenated
Plant cell E.G.
Concentrated= Plasmolysed

21

Gene

General defence system
The general defence system tries to stop pathogens from entering the bloodstream. 
If the general defence system fails the body relies on the specific defence system. 


22

Small Intestine

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23

Active site

Enzymes are specific. They can only catalyse (Break down) me substrate molecule. This is because they have a specific shape called the active site.
All of the digestive enzymes are made in the pancreas. 
The best/optimum temperature for enzymes is 37-40°C.
This is when the rate of reaction will be the fastest. 
Above 40°C the enzymes active site starts to denature (Change shape).

24

LORD

L- left
O- oxygenated
R- right
D- deoxygenated 
The blood goes to the right atrium from the vena cava down to the right ventricle out of the pulmonary vein up to the lungs back into the heart from the pulmonary vein down to the left atrium and left ventricle out of the aorta to the rest of he body.


25

Osmosis

Osmosis
The movement of water molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration across a partially permeable membrane.

26

Chromosome

Mitosis-
This is the second stage of the cell cycle. In this stage the chromosomes line up along the centre of the cell and get pulled to opposite ends. The nucleus divides.


27

IAM triangle

-

28

Crenated

Dilute solution
More water molecules but less solute E.G. Salt, etc...
Concentrated= Crenated
Plant cell E.G.
Concentrated= Plasmolysed

29

Nucleus

Mitosis-
This is the second stage of the cell cycle. In this stage the chromosomes line up along the centre of the cell and get pulled to opposite ends. The nucleus divides.


30

Differentiated cell

Stem cells
Before a cell has differentiated, or specialised, it is called a stem cell. 
A stem cell is a cell that has not yet become a specialised cell (Undifferentiated). 
Features-
It can replicate many times.
It has the potential to become specialised E.G. Different types of cells, etc...
Two types of stem cells;
Embryonic stem cells can develop into almost every cell. 
Adult stem cells found in adult tissues E.G. Bone marrow, etc...
These cells can only change into the same type of cell as the tissue they came from E.G. Liver stem cells, etc...

31

Pacemaker

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32

Gall Bladder

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33

Nerve cell

-

34

Blood

The circulatory system
It's made up of three parts. Blood, blood vessel (Tubes E.G. Arteries, veins and capillaries) and the heart.
Blood travels all around our bodies in blood vessels (Blood tubes).
There are 3 main types;
Arteries, veins and capillaries.
The heart pumps the blood all around the body.

35

Plasma adaptations

-

36

Statins cytoplasm

-

37

Red Blood Cells

Made up of white blood cells (Found in the blood). 
White blood cells;
Phagocytes- 'Engulf' pathogens
Lymphocytes- produce antibodies which kill pathogens.
Phagocytes are a type of white blood cell which engulf or ingest pathogens. Surround invader and digest it

38

Adaptations of Protein

Protiens
Proteins are needed in the diet for;
Growth and repair of the body tissues.
Proteins are made up of long chains of amino acids.

39

Cell membrane adaptations

Active transport
The process by which molecules move from an area of low concentration to an area of higher concentration.
Requires;
ATP energy and Carrier proteins in the cell membrane.
Cytokinesis-
The cytoplasm and cell membrane divide. Two new identical cells are formed.

40

Embryonic stem cell

Embryonic stem cells can develop into almost every cell. 


41

The alveoli

Structure- Alveoli have a very large surface area. Each alveolus is surrounded by a network of capillaries near the surface. The alveoli have thin moist walls. 


42

White Blood Cells

Made up of white blood cells (Found in the blood). 
White blood cells;
Phagocytes- 'Engulf' pathogens
Lymphocytes- produce antibodies which kill pathogens.
Phagocytes are a type of white blood cell which engulf or ingest pathogens. Surround invader and digest it. 
White blood cells destroy pathogens
Phagocytes engulf pathogens.
Lymphocytes produce antibodies which attach to the pathogens antigens and kill the pathogen.
Some white blood cells produce antibodies.

43

Turgid

Dilute solution
More water molecules but less solute E.G. Salt, etc...
Concentrated solution
Less water molecules but more solute E.G. Sugar, etc...
Animal cell E.G. Skin cell, etc...
Dilute = lysis
Concentrated= Crenated
Plant cell E.G.
Dilute= Turgid
Concentrated= Plasmolysed

44

Carbohydrate

On our bio course-
Carbohydrates
Give us energy.
There are 3 types of carbohydrates;
Sugar, starch and fibre. 
Starch and sugar give us energy.
Fibre prevents constipation.
Carbohydrates are made up of chains of simple sugars E.G. Glucose, etc...

45

Sperm cell

To produce sex cells E.G. Sperm cells, etc...


46

Mitochondria

Interphase-
This is the start of the cell cycle. In this stage the cell prepares itself to divide. The DNA is replicated (Doubled) and the organelles (Mitochondria and ribosomes) make copies of themselves. The cell grows in size. 


47

Inhalation adaptations

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48

Adult stem cell

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49

Lipids

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50

Platelets

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51

Turgor

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52

Pressure

-

53

Ribosome

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54

Root hair cell

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55

Exhalation

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56

Zygote

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57

Enzymes

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58

Arteries adaptation

-

59

Active Transport

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60

Cell Wall

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61

Cloning

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62

Active site

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63

Veins

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64

Xylem cells

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65

SA to V ratio

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66

Vacuole

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67

Substrate molecule

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68

Phloem Cells

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69

Interphase

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70

Tissue

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71

Protease

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72

Chloroplast

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73

Diffusion

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74

Double circulatory system

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75

Rate of diffusion organ

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76

Lipase

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77

Eukaryotic cells

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