Flashcards in Cardwell and Haldane Reforms Deck (19):
What did the election of 1868 bring?
A new Liberal government under Sir William Gladstone with an ambitious and reforming manifesto.
When was the Education Act published and what did it mean?
The Elementary Education Act of 1870 was the first of a number of acts of parliament passed between 1870 and 1893 to create compulsory education in England and Wales for children aged between five and 13. It was known as The Forster Act after its sponsor William Forster.
When did Cardwell become Secretary of State for War?
What were the three main problems facing Cardwell?
-Generals did not want to change: they had beaten Napoleon and were therefore the best in Europe, why reform?
-Recruitment: The 1850s and 1860s were a time of economic prosperity for Britain with full employment. Joining the army was therefore not an attractive option for a young man who could work in a factory for higher pay. Minimum term was 12 years to any part of the Empire. Also, life in the army was harsh with the use of punishments such as flogging and branding.
-Purchase system: allowed anyone with wealth to buy their way to the top and so normal working class men had little chance of furthering their career.
How did the Crimean War help to inspire the reforms?
It demonstrated the military incompetence of aristocrats such as Lord Cardigan and Lucan .
Did the Cardwell reforms just change the army?
Yes, the reservist units, the militia and the yeomanry carried on as before.
What happened to the self-governing dominions of Canada, Australia and New Zealand?
They were given responsibility for their own security and began to raise their own troops
What happened with bounty money?
In 1870 an order was issued to abolish bounty money for new recruits which took away the incentive to trick people into joining the army.
When was the purchasing of commissions abolished?
1871, after resistance from generals
What happened concerning flogging and branding? What did this mean for the ordinary soldier?
Flogging in peacetime was banned in 1868 and branding abolished completely in 1871. This improved the lives of soldiers greatly.
In terms of funding, what did Cardwell achieve?
Parliament voted and extra £2 million to pay for another 20,000 troops.
What effect did the reunification of Germany have?
New Germany had changed the balance of power in Europe and people were concerned about the threat of invasion
What was the Army Enlistment Act and when was it passed?
-Rather than 12 years, soldiers could serve for 6 years in the regulars and then 6 in the reserves. This meant they would receive 2 pence a day and were expected to attend a short training session each year. After the 12 year period ended, the men were free to negotiate with the army if they wanted to enlist for longer. 21 years of service led to a pension.
What did the Regulation of the Forces Act seek to do and when was it published?
-It put and end to general service and sought to more closely link each regiment with an area / county.
- General Service was the principle that once a man joined the army, he could be assigned to any unit that the army needed, anywhere in the world. The Act assigned each foot regiment to a geographical area such as a county; they would have two regular battalions whereby at any one time, one would be overseas, whilst the other would defend at home. This meant that soldiers could now serve half of their time with their families in their home area.
Were Cardwell's reforms a success? Yes:
The recruitment problem, a major driving force behind the reforms, was resolved in the 1870s when the economy slowed down, unemployment grew and the prospect of a secure position in the army became more attractive.
-The purchase system was successfully abolished and a meritocratic structure remained BUT the advantage of a wealthy background, private education and a university degree meant that officers were still largely from upper-middle classes.
Were the Cardwell reforms a success? No:
-Soldier's pay was still low, a private earned as much as a rural labourer but less than a manual worker in a city.
-Almost three quarters of a soldier's pay would be claimed back as stoppages to pay for food, fuel and clothing.
-Being a soldier was still seen as an unattractive profession.
Why was the end of the 19th century significant in terms of warfare?
-It was clear that warfare was changing
- New technology meant an increase in firepower which meant a change in tactics.
-Bright coloured uniforms phased out in order to keep men hidden. They were to be replaced with a simple mark on the clothes of a soldier to determine his allegiance.
-Ancillary services needed to respond to changes in medicine.
What were the lessons the British could take from the Second Boer War?
-British columns had been weak against the Boers who used terrain to their advantage.
-Development of smokeless powder stopped troops fro, giving away their position
-The army had proved to be cumbersome and inefficient
-Supply networks were inefficient, equipment substandard and ordinary soldiers were in poor physical condition
-A major contributing factor in British victory was the number of troops and the scorched earth policy rather than military superiority