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Flashcards in Care of the Hepatic Failure Patient Deck (87)
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1

how does the liver function

removes potentially toxic by products of certain medications
-prevents shortages of nutrients by storing vitamins, minerals and sugar
- metaabolizes or breaks down nutrients from food to produce energy, when needed
- produces most proteins needed by the body
helps your body fight infection by removing bacteria from the blood
- produces most of the substances that regulate blood clotting
-produces bile, a compound needed to digest fat and to absorb vitamins A, D, E, K

2

what could happen if the liver fails

build up of meds
-uable to retain nutrients from food or breakdown ammonia
- bacteria builds up in the blood
-blood clotting goes haywire
-bile cannot be regulated
-no albumin production (protein)
- shortage of vitamins, minerals and sugar

3

what is liver failure

inability of liver to function normally
starts out as inflammation of the liver cells
- can be acute or chronic

4

_______ inflammation eventually results in ______ _______ formation in the liver or _______

chronic; scar tissue; cirrhosis

5

liver cirrhosis is when the liver is made up of mostly

scar tissue

6

why will liver enzymes be elevated when drinking alcohol

because it gets rid of alcohol through the liver

7

complete liver failure =

death

8

if the liver fails, the body will

fail

9

if a person donates part of liver will it regenerate

yes

10

how much of the liver can an adult donate to another adult

part of liver

11

how much of the liver can an adult donate to a child

1/3 and it will grow with the child

12

how long does it take for the liver to regrow

6 weeks

13

for a pt who has a liver transplant how long is recovery

6 mos

14

what must match in order to donate a liver

blood type and body size

15

rapid deterioration of liver function
-appears in as little as 48hrs

acute liver failure
*seen in previously healthy individual with NO prior S/S
**medical emergency

16

what are causes of acute liver failure

-exposure to viruses Hep A, B, and C
- drug use (acetaminophen and tuberculosis meds)
-genetic disease
-ingestion of poisonous substances
-pregnancy

17

what are S/S of acute liver failure

encephalopathy
coagulation abnormalities
jaundice
*comes in being very vague (talking funny, not feeling great, foggy)

18

what is encephalopathy

confusion, family says they haven't been themselves, forgetful

19

what is coag abnormalities

increased clotting time, abnormal bruising, frank blood, nose bleed, labs

20

what is an early sign of jaundice

yellow sclera

21

what are complications of acute liver failure

cerebral edema
renal failure
hypoglycemia
metabolic acidosis
sepsis
multiorgan failure

22

what medical management is done to dx and correct the cause of liver failure

-H and P
-lab work (acetaminophen level, drug studies, viral hep serologies)
-CT scan (enlarged liver)
-MRI
-ultrasound (enlarged liver)
-liver biopsy

23

large bore needle inserted into liver through abd wall to remove sample of tissue for testing

liver biopsy

24

what should be done pre op of liver biopsy

assess coagulation tests (PT, PTT, platelets)
educate pt and obtain consent
assess vitals

25

what should be done post op of liver biopsy

assess vitals
monitor for bleeding and peritonitis
bedrest- risk for bleeding (6 or +hrs)
place client on right side with pillow under costal margin
avoid coughing or straining for 24hrs
avoid heavy lifting or exercise for one week

26

what are signs of bleeding

bruising, nose bleeds, bleeding gums, decreased BP, decreased H and H, blood in urine, pale, increased HR

27

why do we put the pt who just has a liver biopsy on their right side

this is the side the liver is on and we want to put pressure on and stop bleeding

28

what can we give pt to avoid straining

fiber, fluids, stool softener

29

elevated biliruben =

jaundice

30

AST level should be no more than

40