Flashcards in Carl Rogers Deck (18):
What is the phenomenal field?
Everything currently or potentially available to consciousness
• Everyone is experiencing a different phenomenal field
We become conscious of incoming stimulus only after they have traveled through __________?
What is our motivation according to Rogers?
→ our motivation is built in – the essence of human nature
→ one motive called the actualizing tendency (what we want to accomplish is the full realization of our full potential)
→ It is our innate need to fully realize all our potentials.
What is the organismic valuing process?
→We are directed toward this goal of actualizing by the organismic valuing process, which leads us toward fulfilling experiences and away from those that are inconsistent with the actualizing tendency.
What is the self?
the part of the phenomenal field labeled as ‘me’. Babies don’t have a self
Why does the self require unconditional positive regard?
People need to be loved and respected regardless of what we say and do .
→ We also need positive regard for ourselves
→ If positive regard is conditional, then there are conditions of worth - ways in which the individual must behave and feel in order to receive positive regard.
What is the Ideal self?
individual internalizes these conditions of worth to form the ideal self.
- It takes over (more or less) the function of the organismic valuing process in guiding the person's behaviour choices.
- distorts the course of self-development
- Replacing internal values with external values
What is incongruence?
→ A bad feeling we have when we have experiences inconsistent with ideal self – similar to Freud’s notion of anxiety
→ We keep incongruent feelings from entering the phenomenal field – we defend consciousness from knowing about these incongruent feelings/thoughts
→ However to become self actualized people must allow all thoughts and feelings to enter consciousness and recognize their whole self
Any relationship can be therapeutic if it meets what four conditions?
• Client and therapist must be in each other’s phenomenal field
- You must pay attention to the individual and see the world as they see it
• Therapist must try to empathically understand client
- Must understand how they feel about things
• Therapist must provide unconditional positive regard
• Client must be aware of empathy and positive regard
- The client must know that the therapist is trying to understand them
- And that no matter what they say they will still be loved
The purpose of Rogerian therapy ?
to reduce the negative effects of the ideal self, and reinstall the organismic valuing process as the guide for behavior
How does rogers respond to the clients thoughts of himself
What psychological changes does the client go through during therapy?
• Expresses freely
• Detects incongruence without distortion
• Recovers previously denied experiences
• Self is congruent with experiences
• self = locus of control
– rely on our organismic valuing process.
What is Roger's Fully functioning person?
the same as Maslow’s self actualized person)
→ Rogers says everyone is always self actualizing
→ After therapy (or after self-development guided by the organismic valuing process), the individual is fully functioning.
What are the 5 characteristics of Roger's fully functioning individual
• Open to experience (without distortion)
• Existential mode of living
• Trusting your organismic valuing judgment
• Sense of experiential freedom (you have the right to make choices)
What is the Q-sort technique?
→ Therapists have 100 cards upon which statements are written
→ Clients are told to sort them into 10 piles, with pile 1 most accurately describing you and pile 10 least describing you
→ The fewest cards are on the ends (5) and the most in the center (18)
Asked to sort them 2 different ways
1. Self sort – as to describe yourself
2. Ideal sort – as you wish you were
→ In the ideal world those sorts would be the same
How do the sorts change over therapy
the self-sort and the ideal sort change simultaneously to meet in the middle
Criticisms of rogers
• ignores the role of the unconscious
• View of human nature too moralistic and simplistic
• Ignores importance of sexual and aggressive motives
• Cannot explain full functioning w/o unconditional positive regard
• Relies too heavily on self-report