Cartilage is a type of _____ tissue and has a _____ appearance.
Cartilage is a type of connective tissue and has a non-descript appearance (very pale).
Specialized connective tissue with high tensile strength which consists of cells embedded in an amorphous, gel-like substance.
_____ are cells associated with cartilage.
What is the term for the small space/compartment that chondrocytes reside in?
What is the term for a lacunae that consists of 2-6 chondrocytes?
Even though vessels are often visible passing through cartilage it is _____
Cartilage has considerable tensile strength due to the presence of what?
Collagen fibers provide strength to cartilage
What are the two types of glycosaminoglycans present in the matrix of cartilage?
1. Hyaluronic Acid
2. Chondroitin Sulfate
*Structurally these components resemble a bottle brush with a long unbranched hyaluronic acid and several protein core molecules attached that have chondroitin sulfate groups radiating out and electrostatically binding to the collagen fibrils.
The presence of sulfate groups on the proteoglycan the matrix stains _____
The sulfate groups impart an acid nature to the matrix and thus adult cartilage stains basophilically.
What is the specialized capsule-like sheath of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the cartilage?
True or False:
The perichondrium is absent in fibrocartilage
What are 4 functions of cartilage?
1. Allows for friction-free movement of bones
2. forms supporting part of nose, larynx, trachea, bronchi and external ear
3. Protects articular surfaces of bones
4. Serves as a template for development of bones of the extremities, vertebral column and pelvis
What specialized structure in long bones is cartilage associated with?
What is a chondroblast?
Young chondrocyte that synthesizes and secretes amorphous ground substance and collagen (active chondrocyte).
What is the term for the matrix surrounding each lacunae?
What is interstitial growth?
Growth from within-cartilage expands by adding matrix internally from existing chondrocytes
What is appositional growth?
growth from the outside; matrix is added externally to the developing cartilage. The cells of the perichondrium divide and secrete ground substance and fibers.
What are 3 types of cartilage?
Hyaline, Elastic, and Fibrocartilage
For hyaline cartilage discuss where it might be located, type of fibers and the presence or absence of perichondrium.
Location-Articular surfaces of bones, nose, larynx, trachea, embryonic skeleton
Perichondrium-Present except the articular surface of bone which does not have perichondrium
True or False: The perichondrium is present in all hyaline cartilage?
False-The perichondrium is absent from the articular surface of bone
Discuss Elastic cartilage location, fiber type, and presence or absence of perichondrium.
Location-Pinna of the ear, epiglottis, auditory tube
Fibers-Elastic with some collagen
For fibrocartilage discuss the location, fiber type and presence or absence of perichondrium.
Location-Intervertebral disks, menisci of stifle joint
How is cartlage repair different in older versus younger animals?
Cartilage is repaired by both appositional and interstitial growth in young animals but in adults is usually replaced by fibrous connective tissue
True or False: Cartilage repair is a slow process
True or False: the Veterinary field was using nutritional supplements to aid in the repair and maintenance of cartilage long before MD's started suggesting it to their patients.
_____ is a common disease in small, long dogs and usually presents as a neurologic problem.
Intervertebral disc disease
Damage to the _____ is common during tears of the cranial cruciate ligament in large breed dogs.