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Flashcards in Case 6 Deck (20):

What do new MS lesions begin with?

Perivenular cuffing?


What is perivenular cuffing?

The surrounding of a vein with WBCs in response to infection or autoimmune.


How do Lymphocytes and monocytes gain access to the brain parenchyme?

Adhering to vascular endothelial cells via the glycoprotein alpha-4-beta-1 intergrin.


Epidemiology of MS?

More common in women, onset usually between 20-45, Vit D deficiency, polygenic susceptibility.


What cells initiate MS?

CD4+ TH1 and TH17 T cells that react against self-myelin.


What is the treatment fro MS?

Divided into three catagories 1)treatment of acute attacks as they occur 2)Treatment with disease-modifying agents that reduce the biological activity of MS 3) Symtomatic therapy.


What is the diathesis-stress model of depression?

A preexisting vulnerability is activated by stressful life events. Vulnerability can be either genetic, or schematic.


What three monoamaines are thought to play a role in depression?

Noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin.


What are the neutral amino acids dopamine (and noradrenalin) and serotonin come from respectively?

Tyrosine and Tryptophan.


What is coping?

Managing stresses that are taxing or exceeding of a persons resources.


What is approach coping?

confronting the problem, gathering information and taking direct action.


What is avoidance coping?

Minimizing the importance of the event.


What is problem-focused coping?

Attempting to take action to either reduce the demands or increase the resources available to manage it.


What is emotion-focused coping?

Management of emotions evoked by the stressful event, using behavioural and cognitive stratergies.


What is the self-affirmation thoery of health protective behaviour??

People are motivated to protect their sense of themselves, if this is threatened they behave defensively, this behaviour can be reduced if given the opportunity to self-affirm in another domain.


What are the core beliefs of the health belief model?

Susceptibility to illness, severity, cost, benefits, cues to action.


What is the protection motivation thoery?

Expands on the health belief to include additional factors. 5 Components: severity, susceptibility, response effectiveness, self-efficacy, fear.


What are the 5 suggested triggers for help-seeking?

1) Occurance of an intrapersonal crisis
2)Percieved interference with scial or personal relations
4)Percieved interference with vocational or physical activity
5)Temporalizing of symptomatology.


What is lasting power of attorney?

Meet the needs of those who will not be able to look after their own personal and financial affairs, it allows arrangments for family members or friends to make decisions on their behalf.


What is an advanced care plan?

A discussion between an individual and their care providers for a time when a person lacks capacity. Covered in the discussion may be things like a patients concerns, important values, particular preferences for types of care or treatmnet for the future.