Case Study - Mt Nyiragongo Flashcards Preview

Hazards - Volcanoes - A level geography > Case Study - Mt Nyiragongo > Flashcards

Flashcards in Case Study - Mt Nyiragongo Deck (20):
1

Location.

Democratic Republic of the Congo in Central Africa.
11,000 feet high.

2

Type of volcano.

Active Stratovolcano.

3

Crater size.

2km wide.
Contains lava lake - 250m deep (largest in world)

4

How active is it?

Erupted 34 times since 1882.

5

Why is it active?

Sits above point where African plate is moving apart.
Hotspot also responsible.

6

Lava type.

Balsaltic lava.
Lava flows with low viscosity move up to 100km per hour due to low silica content.

7

Lava temperature.

2,000 degrees farahn height.

8

Name some risks?

Gases.
Lava lake.
Congonese people provided no protection.
Tsunamis.
Acid rain/smog/lava bombs.

9

Name some dangerous gases.

Carbon dioxide.
Methane.
Cause suffocation.

10

How is the lava lake dangerous?

Flood Goma or explode or lava bombs.

11

Name some immediate responses?

Authorities issued RED alert for Goma - evacuation.
2 days after the United Nations began humanitarian aid.
Lava flows made access to Goma difficult, meaning aid agencies unable to access road.

12

Name some long term responses?

Higher cost of rebuiling.
People suffered from burns as lava took ages to cool.
Camps set up to aid displaced population.
Observatory sampling of lake, gases.
Practice drills.

13

Why did eruption occur?

Months of increased earthquke and steam/gas eruptions.
Resulting in a 13km fissure opening on south flank of volcano.

14

Where did the lava erupt out of?

3 points on the fissure and moved in a stream 200 to 1000m wide and up to 2km deep through Goma, who had little warning.

15

How many people were evacuated from city?

400,000 resulting in low death toll.

16

Why was there limited protection/prediction?

Due to poltical unrest.
LIC.
Difficult to monitor volcano and put responses in place.

17

What did the eruption measure on VEI scale?

1.

18

Name 3 social impacts?

350,000 dependent on aid.
120,000 made homeless.
People returned to Goma a month after eruption hoping to find aid.

19

Name 3 environmental impacts?

Sulphurous lake entered Lake Kivu, poisoning water supplies - drinking source.
Aviation fuel stores exploded as lava lake damaged Goma airport.
Lava flows destroyed at least 1/3 of Goma.

20

Name 3 economic impacts?

People lost their businesses and jobs.
Around 15% of Goma including 4500 buildings destroyed.
Looting.