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Flashcards in case unit 5 - deniers + ethics Deck (21):
1

what is the declaration of helsinki - 1964

an adaptation of the nuremberg code for biomedical research
informs legal ethical guidlines
binds physician to act in patients' best interest

2

what does the declaration of helsinki require an experiemtn to have

informed consent
no unnecessary risk - minimise risk
allow patient withdrawal
publish findings
dont target vulnerable groups
use most current treatment

3

2 major contributions to modern ethical guidlines

nuremberg trials
tuskegee study

4

contribution to human tissue act

alder hey tissue scandal

5

nuremberg trials

1945-46
hearings of 22 nazi war criminals

6

what were the nazis punished for in the nuremberg trials

illegal experimentation on prisoners
no consent
not allowed to withdraw

e.g. mass sterilisation

7

when was the tuskegee study

1932-72
started before the declaration of helsinki
finished early

8

what was the tuskegee study

study of untreated syphilis in negro males

9

what was wrong was with the tuskegee study

syphilis treatment was withheld from subjects
no informed consent given
poor uneducated farmers targeted

10

what did the tuskegee study induce

belmont report
ethical committees

11

why do ethical principles need to be binding

research should benefit everyone

12

what was the alder hey tissue scandal

1988-1995
tissue and organs were obtained and stored from children who died at the hospital

13

what was wrong with the alder hey tissue scandal

no consent was given

14

when was the human tissue act introduced

2004

15

what was the wakefield MMR study

lancet paper - feb 1998
andrew wakefield

falsified results to claim MMR injection caused autism

16

what did andrew wakefield do wrong

subjected autistic children to unnecessary invasive and unpleasant procedures
e.g. lumbar punctures
claimed they had been referred for treatment
conflicts of interest - financial gain
gave vaccine wihtout telling childrens GPs
altered facts

17

what was andrew wakefields conflicts of interests

financial gain
production of his own measles vaccine

18

what could have been improved for the wakefield study

more thorough checks by ethics committee

19

what is the 'theory of falsification'

the fact that a falsifiable hypothesis can be put to a test and be conceivably refuted

20

what is a genuine test of a theory

a test that attempts to falsify it

21

3 features of modern scientific thinking

testable
refutable
falsifiable