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Flashcards in CAST Ch 1 Deck (50):

Appraisal Costs

Resources spent to ensure a high level of quality in all development life cycle stages

Appraisal costs include the cost of in-process reviews, dynamic testing, and final inspections.


Black-Box Testing

A test technique that focuses on testing the functionality of the program, component, or application against its specifications without knowledge of how the system is constructed; usually data or business process driven.



Begin testing from the bottom of the hierarchy and work up to the top. Modules are added in ascending hierarchical order.



A process improvement model for software development.Specifically

Designed to compare an organization’s existing development processes to proven best practices developed by members of industry, government, and academia.


Common Causes of Variation

Typically due to a large number of small random sources of variation.


Cost of Quality (COQ)

Money spent beyond expected production costs (labor, materials, equipment) to ensure that the product the customer receives is a quality (defect free) product.

The Cost of Quality includes prevention, appraisal, and failure costs.


Customers/Uses of Software View of Quality

Fit for use.



Producer's viewpoint a defect is a product requirement that has not been met or a product attribute possessed by a product or a function performed by a product that is not in the statement of requirements that define the
Customer's viewpoint a defect is anything that causes customer dissatisfaction, whether in the statement of requirements or not.
A defect is an undesirable state.


Exploratory Testing

“a style of software testing that emphasizes the personal freedom and responsibility of the individual tester to continually optimize the quality of his/her work by treating test-related learning, test design, test execution, and test result interpretation as mutually supportive activities that run in parallel throughout the project.”


Failure Costs

All costs associated with defective products that have been delivered to the user and/or moved into production.

Either “internal” or “external”


Functional System Testing

Functional system testing ensures that the system requirements and specifications are achieved. The process involves creating test conditions for use in evaluating the correctness of the application.


Incremental Model

The incremental model approach subdivides the requirements specifications into smaller buildable projects (or modules).


Incremental Testing

It involves adding unit-tested programs to a given module or component one by one, and testing each resultant combination.



This test begins after two or more programs or application components have been successfully unit tested. It is the first level of testing which formally integrates a set of programs that communicate among themselves via messages or files


ISO 29119

set of standards for software testing that can be used within any software development life cycle or organization.


Iterative Model

The project is divided into small parts allowing the development team to demonstrate results earlier on in the process and obtain valuable feedback from system users.


Keyword-Driven Testing

also known as table-driven testing or action word based testing, is a testing methodology whereby tests are driven wholly by data.


Life Cycle Testing

The process of verifying the consistency, completeness, and correctness of software at each stage of the development life cycle.


Model-Based Testing

Test cases are based on a simple model of the application. Generally, models are used to represent the desired behavior of the application being tested.


Non-functional Testing

Validates that the system quality attributes and characteristics have been considered during the development process.


Optimum Point of Testing

The point where the value received from testing no longer exceeds the cost of testing.


Producers View of Quality

Meeting requirements.



Is defect free.

quality means “fit for use.”


QualityAssurance (QA)

The set of support activities needed to provide adequate confidence that processes are established and continuously improved to produce products that meet specifications and are fit for use.


Quality Control (QC)

The process by which product quality is compared with applicable standards

Its focus is defect detection and removal.


RAD Model

A variant of prototyping, is another form of iterative development. The RAD model is designed to build and deliver application prototypes to the client while in the iterative process.


Requirements- Based Testing

RBT focuses on the quality of the Requirements Specification and requires testing throughout the development life cycle


Reuse Model

Systems should be built using existing components, as opposed to custom-building new components.

Clearly suited to Object-Oriented computing environments


Risk-Based Testing

Risk-based testing prioritizes the features and functions to be tested based on the likelihood of failure and the impact of a failure should it occur.


Scope of Testing

The scope of testing is the extensiveness of the test process.


Software Quality Criteria

An attribute of a quality factor that is related to software development.


Software Quality Factors

attributes of the software that, if they are wanted and not present, pose a risk to the success of the software and thus constitute a business risk.


Software Quality Gaps

The first gap is the producer gap. It is the gap between what was specified to be delivered, meaning the documented requirements and internal IT standards, and what was actually delivered.

The second gap is between what the producer actually delivered compared to what the customer expected.


Special Causes of Variation

Variation not typically present in the process. They occur because of special or unique circumstances.


Spiral Model

Model designed to include the best features from the Waterfall and Prototyping, and introduces a new component risk-assessment.


Structural System Testing

designed to verify that the developed system and programs work. The objective is to ensure that the product designed is structurally sound and will function correctly.


System Test

The entire system is tested to verify that all functional, information, structural and quality requirements have been met.



1.The process of operating a system or component under specified conditions, observing or recording the results, and making an evaluation of some aspect of the system or component.

2.The process of analyzing a software item to detect the differences between existing and required conditions


Testing Schools of Thought

“a belief (or system of beliefs) shared by a group.”


Thread Testing

This test technique, which is often used during early integration testing, demonstrates key functional capabilities by testing a string of units that accomplish a specific function in the application.



A process improvement model for software testing. The Test Maturity Model integration (TMMi) is a detailed model for test process improvement and is positioned as being complementary to the CMMI.



Begin testing from the top of the module hierarchy and work down to the bottom using interim stubs to simulate lower interfacing modules or programs. Modules are added in descending hierarchical order.



A process that follows the flow of computer logic at execution time. Tracing demonstrates the sequence of instructions or a path followed in accomplishing a given task.


Unit Test

Testing individual programs, modules, or components to demonstrate that the work package executes per specification, and validate the design and technical quality of the application.


User Acceptance Testing

Conducted to ensure that the system meets the needs of the organization and the end user/ customer. It validates that the system will work as intended by the user

Essentially, this test validates that the right system was built.



Validation physically ensures that the system operates according to the desired specifications by executing the system functions through a series of tests that can be observed and evaluated



The process of determining whether the products of a given phase of the software development cycle fulfill the requirements established during the previous phase.



The V-Model is considered an extension of the Waterfall Model. The purpose of the “V” shape is to demonstrate the relationships between each phase of specification development and its associated dynamic testing phase.



A development model in which progress is seen as flowing steadily downwards through the phases of conception


White-Box Testing

A testing technique that assumes that the path of the logic in a program unit or component is known.

consists of testing paths, branch by branch, to produce predictable results.

This technique is usually used during tests executed by the development team, such as Unit or Component testing,