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Flashcards in Castration Deck (26):
1

Castration can treat/prevent what disease?

Crytorchidism

Neoplasia (testicular/scrotal/perianal gland adenoma)

Testicular torsion

Testicular abscesses

Scrotal urethrotomy

Prostatic diseases -cyst, abscess, BPH (doesn’t treat prostatic cancer)

Perineal hernia (testosterone weakness pelvic muscles)

2

Most common surgical approach for castrations?

Pre-scrotal (dogs)

3

When is a scrotal approach used?

Scrotum is incised but not removed

Pre-pubertal puppies

Cats

4

When would you use a perineal approach to a castrations?

Done to avoid resposition patient
More difficult to displace testicles

5

When would you do a scrotal approach with ablation for castration?

Testicular or scrotal neoplasia/ trauma

Testicular torsion
Scrotal urethrostomy
Large mature pendulous scrotum

6

When would you do an inguinal or abdominal approach for castration?

Cryptorchid

If inguinal, incision made directly over testicle

If abdominal , usually a audial ventral midline abdominal approach.. follow vas deferens/testicular artery

7

Is the prescrotal approach, how is the patient draped?

2-3ccm off midline
Scrotum is out of surgical field

8

Where do you make your incision in a prescrotal approach?

You will advance the testicle and then make your incision on the median raphe over the testicle

9

Should you do an open or closed castration in a dog with a large pendulous scrotum?

Closed

10

What is the difference between a closed and and open castration

Closed — does not penetrate PVT

Open — penetrates PVT

PVT= parietal vascular tunic

11

Benefits of closed castration?

Decreased risk of scrotal hematoma
Decreased postoperative swelling

12

Benefits of open castration?

Decreased risk of ligature slipping
Decreased risk of abdominal hemorrhage

13

How do you do a closed castration?

Ventral traction on testicle through incision

Strip spermatic fascia and scrotal ligament

Exteriorize spermatic cord

3 clamp technique (Rochester -carmalts) - proximal is placed 1-2cm from body wall, next two are 5mm apart

14

What suture do you use to ligate ?

2/0 monofilament absorbable (PDS)

Millers in crush of proximal clamp and transfixing/millers/circumferential proximal to remaining clamp

15

How do you close your incision after a castrations?

Two layer closure

3/0 monofilament PDS
-deep tissue and SQ — take bit of superficial midline, avoid urethra, bury knots

Skin

16

How do you do an open castration.?

Provide ventral tension to exteriorize testicle

Do NOT strip spermatic fascial

Incise into PVT (NOT into VVT)
Exteriorize testicle

Place hemostat across PVT attachment
Digitally break down

Separate vessel from ductus deferens

3 clap ligation (ligate ductus and vessels together, ligate PVT separately

17

Common complications from castration?

Scrotal hematoma
- cold and warm compress

Infection
-poor aseptic technique
-collar
-antibiotics and topical cleansing

Hemorrhage
-inadequate ligation
-intra-abdominal hemorrhage

Swelling/bruising (very common)

18

What do you call absence of both testicles?

Anorchism

19

What do you call absense of a single testicle?

Monarchism

20

What do you call one or both testicles not descended into scrotum?

Cryptorchidsim

Most testicles descend in 30-40days

If not descended by 6months =cryptorchid

21

Signalment of cryptorchids?

Dog and cats

Unilateral more common
Small breeds — chihuauaha, poodle, Pomeranian

22

T/F: crytorchid testicles are sterile and predisposed to neoplasia and torsion

True

23

T/F: you should always look for other abnormalities in cats and dogs

True

Canine
-hip dysplasia
-patellar luxation
-penile/preputial luxation
-umbilical hernia

Feline
-patellar luxation
-short or kinked tail
-tarsal deformities
-eyelid angenesis

24

3 locations of crytorchid testicles and treatment of these?

Prescrotal — remove normal testicle first and the push crytorchid testicle into same incision

Inguinal - incision over testicle and open castration

Abdominal — confirm by U/S, caudal abdominal approach
Move back to ventral midline
Follow testicular artery or vas deferens

25

How do castrations of feline patients?

Pluck, do not clip scrotum
Dorsal or lateral recumbency

Legs pulled cranial

Incise cranial to caudal over testicles
Exteriorize

Closed
- liagate cord with overhand or figure 8 knot, allow to heal by second ingestion
OR
Open castration
-incise PVT then same ligature technique as dog or tie ductus deferens

Allow to heal by second intension

26

Complications of feline castrations?

Funiculitis
Scrotal hematoma
Scrotal abscess
Priapism