Flashcards in Cattle Deck (62):
What is the phyla of cattle?
What is the subphyla of cattle?
Vertebrates (segmented spinal column)
What is the class of cattle?
What is the order of cattle?
Ungulata (hoofed animals)
What is the suborder of cattle?
Artrodactyles (even toed)
What is the section of cattle?
Pecora (true ruminants)
What is the family of cattle?
What is the genus of cattle?
What is the group of cattle?
Taurine (of or like a bull)
What are the species of cattle?
Another name for B. primigenius is ...
When and where did aurochs first appear?
India about 2 million years ago
When and where did the last auroch die?
1627 in Poland
Where where the Bod Taurus domesticated?
In the fertile crescent about 10,000 years ago
Do Bos Taurus have humps?
No they are European
Do Bos Zebu have humps?
Yes they are Indian
Where do the two major lineages of Bos Zebu come from?
1. Southeast Asia +China in the Indus valley of Pakistan
2. East Asia + Indian Subcontinent
Are Bos Indicus and Bos Zebu the came thing?
Intact male over one year of age
Mature castrated male used for meat
Young female up to time she has had a calf
Description term for adult bovine
Free Martin: (definition)
Female calf born with a male twin
Japanese Ox: (definition)
Grain fed steers destined for Japan
Improper or late castration
Cow or heifer close to calving
Fresh cow: (definition)
Dairy term for cow just calved
Mountain oysters: (definition)
testicles from a cow
Describe the Life of a Cow.
- Bred at 14 months
- Has first calf at 24 months ( without dystocia)
- Must produce a calf every year (9-10 total)
Describe the life of a Bull.
- Weaned at 6 months
- Fed good quality forage until breeding age
- Enters breeding herd at 2 years of age
- Usually only with cows during breeding season
- Usually kept for 2-4 breeding seasons
Describe Breeding / Culling season.
- Year round breeding - bulls stay out
- For early spring calving:
* breed during late may
* claves born Feb - Mar.
* weaned in October
- For late spring calving:
* breed late June - May
- For fall calving:
* breed during Jan - Feb
Describe the life of a Steer.
- Castrated shortly after birth
- Grazed on pasture until about 7,000 lbs
- Enters feedlot and is fed grain for 120 to 180 days or until 1,300 lbs
Describe the life of Heifer.
- If kept as a replacement for breeding herd:
* weaned at 6 months
* fed on good quality forage until bred at 14 months
* most producers will provide calving assistance to first
- If not going into breeding herd:
* treated same as a steer
Cattle Nutrition: Why are the Microorganisms unique?
They digest grass and the structural carbohydrates in plants
Cattle Nutrition: What are the 4 compartments of the ruminant stomach?
Cattle Nutrition: What are the structural carbohydrates?
Cattle Nutrition: What are nonstructural carbohydrates?
Everything in the cell that is easily digestable or not apart of the structure of the plant
Cattle Nutrition: What are the classes of nutrients?
Beef Cattle Management: What is a seed stock producer?
Cow-Calf producers that produce breeding stock for purebred or commercial operations
Beef Cattle Management: What is a Cow-Calf operation?
Use purebred breeding stock in crossbreeding programs to produce commercial offspring
Beef Cattle Management: What is a stocker operation?
Purchasing weaning calves from cow/calf producers and feed them out on pasture land
Beef Cattle Management: What are feedlots?
A segment of the beef industry whose sole purpose is to feed + fatten cattle
Beef Cattle Management: What do beef packers do?
Harvest finished cattle which are purchased from feedlots and other outlets
Beef Cattle Management: What is a consumer?
The true final segment of the beef industry
Beef Production: Breeds are distinguished by what?
- Color pattern
- Polled / Horned
- Extreme differences in form or shape
Beef Cattle Management: Name 3 major US beef breeds.
Beef Cattle Management: How do you improve the herd?
- Select animals that are superior to the herd average
- Selecting traits that are highly heritable
List the Economically Important Traits.
1. Reproductive Performance
2. Weaning Weight
3. Post Weaning Growth
4. Feed Efficiency
5. Carcas Merit
8. Freedom From Genetic Defects
What are some characteristics of Reproductive Performance?
- goal is to have >85% calves weaned
- calf every 365 days
- entire calving season 90 days
- high heritability's
- best way to improve repro. performance is to improve environment
What two ways can you improve the environment for the herd?
- select bulls that are sound
Reproductive Cycles: Estrus characteristics are ...
- 10 to 26 hours
- 18 hour average
- cycle year round
Reproductive Cycles: Estrous characteristics are ...
- 18 to 24 days
- 21 day average
Reproductive Cycles: How long is gestation?
Reproductive Cycles: When does ovulation occur?
4 - 16 hours post estrus
What are some characteristics of Weaning Weight?
- measured by actual weight
- commonly adjusted to 205 day equivalent
- commonly expressed as a ratio of calves in the group
- (actual birth weight - birth weight / days between weights) 205 + birth weight + adjustments
What are some characteristics of Post Weaning Growth?
- weaned from finished weight
- weaning weight + past weaning growth
What are some characteristics of Feed Efficiency?
- Lbs. of feed / Lbs. gained
- hard to measure
- Highly heritable
What are some characteristics of Carcas Merit?
- quality grades and yeild grades
- measured by ultrasound
- heritable > 30 %
What are some characteristics of Longevity?
- highly reproductive cows (4-15 years)
- bulls kept for 3-5 years
- possible culling
What are some characteristics of Conformation?
- form, shape, visual appearance