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Animal Science 200 > Cattle > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cattle Deck (62):
1

What is the phyla of cattle?

Cordata

2

What is the subphyla of cattle?

Vertebrates (segmented spinal column)

3

What is the class of cattle?

Mammalia

4

What is the order of cattle?

Ungulata (hoofed animals)

5

What is the suborder of cattle?

Artrodactyles (even toed)

6

What is the section of cattle?

Pecora (true ruminants)

7

What is the family of cattle?

Bovidae

8

What is the genus of cattle?

Bos (cattle)

9

What is the group of cattle?

Taurine (of or like a bull)

10

What are the species of cattle?

B. primigenius
B. taurus
B. indicus

11

Another name for B. primigenius is ...

Aurochs

12

When and where did aurochs first appear?

India about 2 million years ago

13

When and where did the last auroch die?

1627 in Poland

14

Where where the Bod Taurus domesticated?

In the fertile crescent about 10,000 years ago

15

Do Bos Taurus have humps?

No they are European

16

Do Bos Zebu have humps?

Yes they are Indian

17

Where do the two major lineages of Bos Zebu come from?

1. Southeast Asia +China in the Indus valley of Pakistan
2. East Asia + Indian Subcontinent

18

Are Bos Indicus and Bos Zebu the came thing?

yes

19

Bull: (definition)

Intact male over one year of age

20

Bullock: (definition)

Mature castrated male used for meat

21

Heifer: (definition)

Young female up to time she has had a calf

22

Beast: (definition)

Description term for adult bovine

23

Free Martin: (definition)

Female calf born with a male twin

24

Japanese Ox: (definition)

Grain fed steers destined for Japan

25

Stag: (definition)

Improper or late castration

26

Springer: (definition)

Cow or heifer close to calving

27

Fresh cow: (definition)

Dairy term for cow just calved

28

Dogies: (definition)

Orphaned cow

29

Mountain oysters: (definition)

testicles from a cow

30

Describe the Life of a Cow.

- Bred at 14 months
- Has first calf at 24 months ( without dystocia)
- Must produce a calf every year (9-10 total)

31

Describe the life of a Bull.

- Weaned at 6 months
- Fed good quality forage until breeding age
- Enters breeding herd at 2 years of age
- Usually only with cows during breeding season
- Usually kept for 2-4 breeding seasons

32

Describe Breeding / Culling season.

- Year round breeding - bulls stay out
- For early spring calving:
* breed during late may
* claves born Feb - Mar.
* weaned in October
- For late spring calving:
* breed late June - May
- For fall calving:
* breed during Jan - Feb

33

Describe the life of a Steer.

- Castrated shortly after birth
- Grazed on pasture until about 7,000 lbs
- Enters feedlot and is fed grain for 120 to 180 days or until 1,300 lbs

34

Describe the life of Heifer.

- If kept as a replacement for breeding herd:
* weaned at 6 months
* fed on good quality forage until bred at 14 months
* most producers will provide calving assistance to first
calf heifers
- If not going into breeding herd:
* treated same as a steer

35

Cattle Nutrition: Why are the Microorganisms unique?

They digest grass and the structural carbohydrates in plants

36

Cattle Nutrition: What are the 4 compartments of the ruminant stomach?

Rumen
Reticulum
Omasum
Abomasum

37

Cattle Nutrition: What are the structural carbohydrates?

Cellulose
Lignin
Hemicellulose

38

Cattle Nutrition: What are nonstructural carbohydrates?

Everything in the cell that is easily digestable or not apart of the structure of the plant

39

Cattle Nutrition: What are the classes of nutrients?

Water
Fats
Carbs
Vitamins
Minerals

40

Beef Cattle Management: What is a seed stock producer?

Cow-Calf producers that produce breeding stock for purebred or commercial operations

41

Beef Cattle Management: What is a Cow-Calf operation?

Use purebred breeding stock in crossbreeding programs to produce commercial offspring

42

Beef Cattle Management: What is a stocker operation?

Purchasing weaning calves from cow/calf producers and feed them out on pasture land

43

Beef Cattle Management: What are feedlots?

A segment of the beef industry whose sole purpose is to feed + fatten cattle

44

Beef Cattle Management: What do beef packers do?

Harvest finished cattle which are purchased from feedlots and other outlets

45

Beef Cattle Management: What is a consumer?

The true final segment of the beef industry

46

Beef Production: Breeds are distinguished by what?

- Color
- Color pattern
- Polled / Horned
- Extreme differences in form or shape

47

Beef Cattle Management: Name 3 major US beef breeds.

Shorthorn
Hereford
Angus

48

Beef Cattle Management: How do you improve the herd?

- Select animals that are superior to the herd average
- Selecting traits that are highly heritable

49

List the Economically Important Traits.

1. Reproductive Performance
2. Weaning Weight
3. Post Weaning Growth
4. Feed Efficiency
5. Carcas Merit
6. Longevity
7. Conformation
8. Freedom From Genetic Defects

50

What are some characteristics of Reproductive Performance?

- goal is to have >85% calves weaned
- calf every 365 days
- entire calving season 90 days
- high heritability's
- best way to improve repro. performance is to improve environment

51

What two ways can you improve the environment for the herd?

- select bulls that are sound
- crossbreeding

52

Reproductive Cycles: Estrus characteristics are ...

- 10 to 26 hours
- 18 hour average
- cycle year round

53

Reproductive Cycles: Estrous characteristics are ...

- 18 to 24 days
- 21 day average

54

Reproductive Cycles: How long is gestation?

285 days

55

Reproductive Cycles: When does ovulation occur?

4 - 16 hours post estrus

56

What are some characteristics of Weaning Weight?

- measured by actual weight
- commonly adjusted to 205 day equivalent
- commonly expressed as a ratio of calves in the group
- (actual birth weight - birth weight / days between weights) 205 + birth weight + adjustments

57

What are some characteristics of Post Weaning Growth?

- weaned from finished weight
- weaning weight + past weaning growth

58

What are some characteristics of Feed Efficiency?

- Lbs. of feed / Lbs. gained
- hard to measure
- Highly heritable

59

What are some characteristics of Carcas Merit?

- quality grades and yeild grades
- measured by ultrasound
- heritable > 30 %

60

What are some characteristics of Longevity?

- highly reproductive cows (4-15 years)
- bulls kept for 3-5 years
- possible culling

61

What are some characteristics of Conformation?

- form, shape, visual appearance

62

What are some characteristics of Freedom from Genetic Defects?

- usually occur frequently
- common defects
- many result in death
- get out of herd means to get rid of carrier