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St. Augustine's Christianity > CBQ2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in CBQ2 Deck (22):
1

Socrates

470-399 BCE

2

Plato

434-348 BCE
Everything divine is good
God = the One = the Good
Immoral pagan gods are fictions of the poets' creation

3

The Old Academy

Founded by Plato in the 4th c. BCE
Xenocrates studied here

4

Xenocrates

396-314 BCE
Formulated the hierarchy of demons (demonology) and introduced the dualism of good demons and bad demons to differentiate the good demons of philosophy from the bad demons of pagan gods

5

New Skeptical Academy

Founded by Arcesileus (315-24 BCE)
Attended by Carneades (214-129 BCE)
Influenced Cicero (1st c. BCE) who in turn influenced Augustine

6

Middle Platonism

Gnostic, Jewish, Egyptian beliefs/practices influence Platonism and adopt Platonist language to express their views
Philo Judeus (c. 20 BCE - c. 50 CE)
Plutarch (46-120 CE)
Apuleius (124-170 CE)
Celsus (2nd c. CE)
Origen (185-254 CE)

7

Celsus

2nd c. CE
wrote On the True Doctrine against Christianity

8

Origen

185-254 CE
wrote against Celsus, defending Christianity, making him the first Christian apologist

9

Chaldean Oracles

"Handed down by the gods" to Julian the Theurgist during 2 c. CE
Use of theurgic "calling and receiving" to derive oracles from Plato's soul
Regarded by Neoplatonists (e.g. Porphyry) as revelatory literature
Congruence of Gnostic, Hermetic, and Chaldean thought

10

Gnostics and Manicheans

Gnostics 2-3 c. CE. Manicheanism 3-7 c. CE
God is unknowable (similar to Platonism)
Cosmos is a creation of an evil creator
Man's body is an obstacle to the soul's ascent
Complete rejection of sex
Rejected external rites and purificatory rituals

11

Hermeticism

3-7 c. CE
Negative theology (// to Platonism, unknowable God)
God is a more personal power than in Gnosticism
Similar view to Gnostics of cosmos as evil creation, but more positive
Body is an obstacle to the soul's ascent
Man had the duty to procreate, but otherwise should remain celibate
Participated in and defended pagan rituals and rites

12

Neoplatonism

3-6 c. CE
Plotinus (204-270 CE) strict follower of Plato's ideas
Porphyry (234-305 CE)
Iamblichus (245-325 CE)

13

Porphyry

234-305 CE
Outwardly attacks Christianity; wrote Letter to Anebo to express his doubt about Iamblichus' defense of pagan beliefs and theurgy

14

Iamblichus

245-325 CE
tried to preserve philosophy in the face of Christianity by mending its conflict with pagan society, finding higher meaning in pagan tradition

15

Anebo

a disciple of Iamblichus whom Porphyry is writing to in order to express his doubts about Iamblichus' defense of pagan beliefs and support of theurgy

16

De Mysteriis

by Iamblichus; a book-long response to Porphyry's questions in the Letter to Anebo. Iamblichus poses as Egyptian priest Abammon and from this authoritative posture tries to defend pagan practices

17

Plotinus and the Gnostics

Plotinus (204-270 CE) wrote a treatise against Gnostics in philosophy since
1. Gnostics accepted many levels of being while Plotinus only accepted three: the One, the Mind, the Soul
2. Gnostics held that the world and its creator are evil while Plotinus, following Plato, believed both were good

18

Julian the Apostate

331-363 CE
became emperor in 361; reversed Christianization of the Roman Empire done by Constantine; reinstated paganism as the official religion of the empire and relied on De Mysteriis by Iamblichus to prop up his reform

19

Donatism

4-6 c. CE
A schism in the Christian church; Donatists held that Christians who denied their faith for fear of persecution should be excommunicated (Augustine disagreed)

20

Petrarch

1304-1374 CE
Italian Renaissance scholar considered the founder of HUmanism, the study of Classical Antiquity, first in Italy then across Western Europe

21

Pelagianism

Pelagius (354-420) believed human will is sufficient to liberate them from sin, without divine aid

22

Pelagianism

Pelagius (354-420) believed human will was sufficient to free man from sin, without the need of divine aid