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Flashcards in cell alteration /injury Deck (32)
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1
Q

what can a cell do in response to injury?

A
  • adapt
  • be damaged
  • die
2
Q

what kind of change is cell swelling?

A

hyrdopic change

3
Q

what happens when there is endogenous accumulation (like lipidosis)

A
  • metabolic pathways in cells are inhibited by injury or overwhelmed by excess demand
  • triglyceride accumulation is one common manifestation of metabolic change
4
Q

what happens when there is endogenous accumulation (like glycogenosis)

A

-glycogen accumulates die to abnormal metabolism

5
Q

what happens when there is endogenous accumulation (like hemosiderin)

A
  • intracellular aggregates of ferritin (an iron-protein conjugate)
  • commonly associated with: increased RBC senescence and hemolysis
6
Q

what happens when there is endogenous accumulation (like lipfuscin)

A
  • undegradable remnants of oxidized membrane lipids

- it can accumulate as a part of aging or due to excessive membrane oxidation

7
Q

what is neoplastic transformation

A

transformed cells may have abnormal growth, often abnormal function, and abnormal morphology

8
Q

what is coagulative necrosis?

A

-cell and tissue death due to loss of energy

9
Q

what is the basic morphology coagulative necrosis

A

cells are retained but have a “ghost-like’ appeanace

  • pale and dry
  • frequently surrounded by a zone of inflammation
10
Q

what are some causes of coagulative necrosis

A
  • loss of energy
  • oxygen metabolites
  • toxins
11
Q

histologic appearance of coagulative necrosis

A
  • cell outlines are retained

- nuclei are shrunken (pyknotic), fragmented (karyorrhaxis), absent (karyolysis)

12
Q

what is liquefactive necrosis

A

-cell and tissue death associated with liquefaction in response to neutrophil enzymes

13
Q

what is the basic tissue morphology of liquefactive necrosis

A
  • tissue is replaced by liquified debris (pus)

- focal pus accumulation (abscess)

14
Q

what are the causes of liquefactive necrosis

A
  • pyogenic bacterial infection

- hypoxia in the nervous system

15
Q

what is the histology of liquefactive necrosis

A
  • neutrophils
  • liquefaction of the tissues in response to neutrophil enzymes
  • outer fibrous capsule in mature lesions
16
Q

what is caseous necrosis

A
  • a type of coagulative necrosis where the necrotic tissue is surrounded by a chronic inflammatory response
  • a prominent component of many types of granulomatous inflammation
17
Q

what occurs in most cases in association of caseous necrosis?

A

granuloma

18
Q

what are some causes of caseous necrosis

A
  • bacteria with dense waxy cell walls
  • fungi and higher organism
  • foreign bodies
19
Q

what is the gross morphology of casous necrosis

A

-granular, friable (cottage-cheese-like) mass

20
Q

what is the histology of caseous necrosis

A
  • central core of eosinophilic debris
  • surrounded zone of inflammation
    • lymphocytes and plasma cells
    • macrophages
  • outer fibrous capsule in mature lesions
21
Q

what is gangrenous necrosis

A
  • areas of coafulative necrosis that subsequently infected by bacteria and undergo putrefaction
  • ischemia (reduction in oxygen supply to the area) is the common underlying cause
22
Q

what is a granuloma?

A

a mass of granulation tissue, produced in response to infection or trauma, inflammation or in response to a foreign substance

23
Q

what is the gross morphology of moist grangrenous necrosis

A

soft, red-brown to black tissue

- due to liquefaction of tissue by neurtophils

24
Q

what is the gross morphology of dry gangrenous necrosis

A
  • dry, brown to black, shriveled tissue

- due to infarction and mummification

25
Q

what is the gross morphology of gas gangrenous necrosis

A
  • exudative, brown to black tissue containing gas

- due to proliferation of gas-producing bacteria

26
Q

what is the morphology of each gangrenous necrosis?

A
  • MOIST: coagulation necrosis progressing to liquefaction of tissue
  • DRY: coagulation necrosis
  • GAS: coagulation with serohemorrhagic fluid and gas bubbles
27
Q

what is fat necrosis?

A
  • a process that occurs in fat due to the destruction of adipocytes by lipases
  • most commonly occurs in association with pancreatitis
28
Q

what are the causes of fat necrosis?

A
  • enzymatic destruction due to pancreatitis
  • traumatic crushing of fat
  • idiopathic
    • fat necrosis of abdominal fat in cattle
29
Q

what is the gross morphology of fat necrosis?

A

tissue in white, firm and chalky

30
Q

what is the histologic morphology of fat necrosis?

A
  • adipoctyes are eosinophlic but retain normal architecture

- basophilic areas may be present due to calcium binding (saponification)

31
Q

what is amyloid

A

a chemically diverse protein that has a beta-pleated sheet conformation

  • occurs due to abnormal folding of amyloid proteins
  • looks like pink fluid histology
32
Q

where does dystrophic calcification occur?

A

in necrotic tissue