Cell as a Unit of Health and Disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cell as a Unit of Health and Disease Deck (43):
1

Abundant in liver and gonads; used for steroid hormone and lipoprotein synthesis

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p.6

2

Synthesizes new proteins for the plasma membrane

Rough endoplasmic reticulum(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p.6

3

Modifies hydrophobic compounds into water-soluble molecules

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p.6

4

Organelles with degradative enzymes that permit digestion of macromolecules

Lysosomes(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p.6

5

Organelles that break down fatty acids, generating hydrogen peroxide in the process

Peroxisomes(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p.6

6

Intracellular scaffolding that allows cells to adopt a particular shape and organization. Also maintains polarity.

Cytoskeleton(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p.10

7

Shuttles internalized material to the appropriate site. Also directs newly synthesized materials to the cell surface or targeted organelle.

Endosomal vesicles(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p.6

8

Production site of ATP and metabolic intermediates needed for anabolic metabolism

Mitochondria(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p.6

9

Contain important sensors of cell damage that can initiate and regulate the process of programmed cell death.

Mitochondria(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p.6

10

Water and carbon dioxide diffuse across the cell lipid bilayers through this TYPE OF DIFFUSION

Passive membrane diffusion(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p.9

11

The process by which large molecules are exported from cells.

Exocytosis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p.9

12

The movement of endocytosed vesicles between the apical and basolateral compartments of the cell, which is how large proteins are transferred across an epithelial barrier.

Transcytosis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p.9

13

Non-coated plasma membrane invagination ("little caves") associated with cAMP, GPI-linked molecules, SRC-family kinases, and folate receptor.

Caveolae(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p.9

14

A fluid-phase process during which the plasma membrane invaginates and is pinched off to form a cytoplasmic vesicle.

Pinocytosis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p.9

15

Major uptake mechanism for macromolecules such as transferrin and LDL, which bind to receptors localized in clathrin-coated pits.

Receptor-mediated endocytosis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p.20

16

Most abundant cytosolic protein in cells.

Actin(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p. 11

17

They serve as connecting cables for "molecular motor" proteins that use ATP to move vesicles, organelles, or other molecules.

Microtubules(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p. 11

18

Cell junction that seal adjacent cells together, creating a barrier that restricts paracellular movement of ions and other molecules.

Occluding junctions (tight junctions)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p. 11

19

Cell junctions that mechanically attach cells and their intracellular cytoskeletons to other cells or to extracellular matrix.

Anchoring junctions (desmosomes) (tight junctions)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p. 11

20

Junctions that mediate the passage of chemical or electrical signals from one cell to another.

Communicating junctions (gap junctions) (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p. 12

21

Cell organelle that consists of stacked cisternae that progressively modify protein

Golgi apparatus(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p. 12

22

Cell-cell signaling pathway: cells in immediate vicinity are affected.

Paracrine signaling(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p. 16

23

Cell-cell signaling pathway: molecules secreted by a cell affect tat same cell.

Autocrine signaling(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p. 16

24

Cell-cell signaling pathway: activated neurons secrete neurotransmitters at specialized cell junctions onto target cells.

Synaptic signaling(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p. 16

25

Cell-cell signaling pathway: A mediator is released into the bloodstream and acts on target cells at a distance.

Endocrine signaling(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p. 16

26

Vitamin D and steroid hormones are cell-permeable ligands for this type of receptor.

Intracellular receptors(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p. 16

27

Its major role is to stimulate the activity of genes required for cell growth and cell division.

Growth factors(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p. 18

28

Growth factor that stimulates keratinocyte migration and formation of granulation tissue

Epidermal growth factor(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p. 19

29

Growth factor that stimulates proliferation of hepatocytes and other epithelial cells.

Transforming growth factor-alpha(TGF-a)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p. 19

30

Growth factor: enhances proliferation of hepatocytes and increases cell motility

Hepatocyte growth factor(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p. 19

31

Growth factor: stimulates proliferation of endothelial cells and increases vascular permeability

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p. 19

32

Growth factor that is chemotactic for neutrophils, fibroblasts, and smooth muscles, and activates proliferation of fibroblasts and endothelial cells.

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) (VEGF)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p. 19

33

Growth factor that is chemotactic and mitogenic for fibroblasts and stimulates angiogenesis and ECM protein synthesis

Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) (VEGF)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p. 19

34

Component of ECM responsible for the ability of tissues to recoil and recover their shape after physical deformation.

Elastin(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p. 23

35

Component of ECM that confer resistance to compressive forces, also provide lubrication between bony surfaces.

Proteoglycan(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p. 23

36

The most abundant glycoprotein in basement membrane.

Laminin(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p. 24

37

A major component of the interstitial ECM.

Fibronectin(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p. 24

38

A large family of transmembrane glycoproteins that allow cells to attach to ECM constituents, linking the intracellular cytoskeleton with the outside world.

Integrins(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology 9th ed. p. 24

39

Sequence of events in cell cycle

G1/Presynthetic growth-S/DNA synthesis-G2/Premitotic growth- M/mitotic phase (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p.25

40

Two important properties of stem cells

Self-renewal and assymetric division. (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 26

41

Undifferentiated stem cells which are totipotent and can be induced to form specialized cells of all three germ cell layers.

Embryonic stem cells(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p. 27

42

Variety of stem cell with limited repertoire of differentiated cells that they can generate.

Tissue stem cells(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p. 27

43

Specialized tye of "grinder" that selectively chews up denatured proteins, releasing peptides

Proteasomes(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p.6