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Flashcards in Cell Biology Deck (102):
1

What are the 3 types of transport in/out of cells

Diffusion
Osmosis
Active transport

2

What type of cells are animal and plant cells

Eukaryotic

3

What type of cells are bacteria cells

Prokaryotes

4

Which cell is smaller eukaryotic or prokaryotic

Prokaryotes

5

What is characteristic about prokaryotic cells

They do not have a nucleus they have DNA in a single loop

6

Put these in order of size starting with the largest; micro, nano, centi, milli

Centi, milli, micro, nano

7

Where is the genetic material found in a eukaryotic cell

The nucleus

8

Where is the genetic information found in a prokaryotic cell

The DNA is in a loop in the cell

9

What is the function of cytoplasm

Chemical processes take place here controlled by enzymes

10

What is the function of the cell membrane

Controls the movement of substances in and out of a cell

11

What is the function of the mitochondria

Where respiration occurs releasing energy

12

What is the function of ribosomes

Where proteins are made

13

What is the function of a cell wall

Gives the cell strength

14

What is the cell wall made of

Cellulose (not in bacteria)

15

What is the function of chloroplasts

Containing chlorophyll that absorbs light energy for photosynthesis

16

What is the function of a permanent vacuole

Contains cell sap to keep it turgid (swollen from water uptake)

17

What is a plasmid when talking about bacteria

A small ring of DNA often used as a vector in genetic modification

18

What does it mean by cell specialisation

The structure of a cell that helps them carry out a specific function

19

How does the mitochondria in a sperm cell relate to specialisation

Mitochondria is needed to release energy for movement

20

Why has a sperm cell got a long tail

To help it swim to the egg to fertilise it

21

Why does the head of a sperm cell contain an enzyme

To digest the cell membrane of the egg

22

What enzyme is found in the head of a sperm cell

Acrosome

23

Why is a nerve cell long

So it can carry signals across long distances

24

How does the nerve cell create a network around the body

They have branched connections joining the nerve cells together

25

What are the finger like things called on the end of nerve cells around the nucleus

Dendrite

26

What helps a nerve cell enhance transmissions of electrical signals

Insulated sheath

27

Why are muscle cells long

So there is enough space to contract

28

How does a muscle cell release energy

It has a lot of mitochondria which releases energy by respiration

29

What is the function of a root hair cell

To absorb water and minerals from the soil

30

How is a root hair cell specialised

It has hair like projections to increase surface area

31

What do root hair cells not contain that a plant cell does and why

They don’t contain chloroplasts because they are underground

32

What is the function of xylem

Carry water and minerals in plants

33

Why is xylem made up of dead tissue

To create a hollow tube

34

In xylem what is the function of lignin

Toughens up long cell walls

35

How and in which direction does the the minerals and water flow

Upwards from the roots to the leaves
By active transport

36

What is the function of phloem

Carry glucose around the plant

37

What are phloem tubes made out of

Living tissue

38

What do the cells in phloem contain

End plates with holes in them

39

What process moves the glucose in terms of phloem

Translocation

40

Where does the glucose solution move from and to by being carried by phloem

From the leaves to growth and storage tissue

41

What does it mean by undifferentiated

The cell can turn into any cell

42

What is the difference in differentiation in animal and plant cells

Most animal cells differentiate in the early stage of development
Most plant cells can differentiate throughout their life cycle

43

What is the max magnification of a light microscope

1500

44

What is the max magnification of an electron microscope

2,000,000

45

What is the resolution of a light microscope

200nm

46

What is the resolution of an electron microscope

0.2nm

47

What can light microscopes help us see

Structures such as the mitochondria

48

What does the electron microscope help us see

Internal structures of organelles such as chloroplast and the mitochondria

49

How do you find the magnification

Size of image / real size

50

How would you draw what you see in a microscope

Clear line drawing, no shading
Label main cell structures
Add title and magnification

51

How to bacteria multiply

Binary fission

52

What is the average rate of binary fission

20 minuets

53

What is agar used for

Containing energy source and minerals

54

What must happen to the petridish and agar before bacteria is added

Must be sterilised to kill microorganisms

55

What Funtime does an inoculating loop have

Transferring bacteria after being heated by a Bunsen burner

56

Why must the Petri dish be sealed

So other microorganisms can get in

57

Why can the Petri dish be sealed completely

Oxygen must be able to get in for aerobic respiration

58

What is the zone of inhibition

An area where bacteria doesn’t grow

59

How many pairs of chromosome are there in a human gene

23

60

Where are chromosomes found

In the nucleus

61

What are chromosomes made of

Coiled strands of DNA

62

What is a gene

A section of DNA that codes for a specific protein or characteristic

63

How do cells multiply

Mitosis

64

What are the 3 stages of cell division

Growth
DNA synthesis
Mitosis

65

What happens in growth in cell division

Copies are made of the organelles such as ribosomes

66

What happens in DNA synthesis in cell division

The DNA copies, 2 copies of each chromosomes

67

What happens in the stage mitosis in cell division

1 set of chromosomes is pulled to either side of the cell
The cytoplasm and call membrane dip and divid into two identical parent cells

68

What does it mean by stem cells

Cells that are undifferentiated

69

What are the 2 types of stem cells found in humans

Embryonic
Bone marrow

70

What are the disadvantages of embryo stem cells

Ethics

71

What is an advantage of embryo stem cells

They can turn into any cell

72

What is a disadvantage of adult stem cells

They can’t turn into any cell

73

What is an advantage of adult stem cells

The host mustn’t be killed

74

What is meristems

Undifferentiated plant stem cells grouped together

75

What is diffusion

The movement of gas down a concentration gradient

76

How does oxygen move around the body and from and to where

Diffusion
From alveolar air space to blood circulating around the lungs

77

How does digested food travel and from and to where

Diffusion
From the small intestine to the blood in capillary of villus

78

How does urea travel and from and to where

Diffusion
From cells to blood plasma

79

What 3 factors affect the rate of diffusion

The concentration gradient
The temperature
The surface area of the membrane

80

Why does the small intestine contain villi

To increase the surface area

81

What advantage is there that the membrane on the villi are thin

Short diffusion distance

82

Why do the lungs have alveoli

Increased surface area

83

Why is there a short diffusion distance for the lungs

The membrane of the alveoli are very thin

84

How is the surface area increased in gills

The gill filaments

85

What are the gill filaments covered in and why

Lamella
Increase surface area

86

What does the lamella have

A good blood supply

87

Why is a good blood supply important when talking about gills in fish

Maintains the concentration gradient as water flows in the opposite direction

88

Why are the lamellae membranes very thin

Short diffusion distance

89

How do the leaves absorb more light

Increased surface area

90

There is a thin membrane in leave cells which means

There is a short distance for the carbon dioxide to diffuse across

91

What is on the lower side of the leaf that allows gases to diffuse into and out of the leaf

Stomata

92

What is osmosis

The diffusion of water from a dilute solution to a concentrated solution thought a partially permeable membrane

93

What 2 factors effect the rate of osmosis

The concentration gradient
Temperature

94

What is hypertonic

More concentrated solution than in the cells

95

What is isotonic

Same concentration as the solution in the cell

96

What is hypotonic

More dilute than the solution in the cells

97

What is active transport

Substances from a dilute solution to a more concentrated solution against the concentration gradient

98

How it energy proved for active transport

Respiration

99

What is a partially permeable membrane

A membrane that lets some things through it

100

What are the 5 stages of animal growth

Egg and sperm
Fertilisation
Zygote
Embryo
Foetus

101

What is an egg and sperm also known as

Gamets

102

What are the 3 main stages in cell dividing

Growth
Copy
Split