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Flashcards in cell division/embryology/energy Deck (78):
1

interphase

when cell isn’t dividing
Gap 1 = cell growth
S = DNA Doubles
centrioles double
Gap 2= cell growth and prep for division
longest stage of cell cycle

2

checkpoints

-internal and external signals provide stop and go signals at checkpoints
-cyclins and cyclin dependant kinases control the cycle

3

checkpoint failure?

often causes mutations and genomic arrangements resulting in genetic instability
birth defects + cancer

4

cell cycle

-mitotic phase and interphase alternate
-highly regulated
-checkpoints determine fate of the cell

5

diploid cells

2 sets of each chromosome- 1 from each parent

6

haploid cells

1/2 chromosomes 23

7

prophase

1st phase- condensation of chromosomes, disappearance of nucleolus, chromatids condense (chromosome x’s), microtubules are made for structure

8

metaphase

2nd phase- chomosomes attach to microtubules. start to be pulled towards edges, chromosomes line up in a line in the middle of the cell

9

anaphase

chromosomes separate, egg shape, ana=back

10

telophase

crease forms between cells, chromosomes go back to chromatin

11

cleavage

fission between 2 new cells before they break, done by cytokinesis

12

mitosis

-decision of nucleus of 2 diploid, (2n) somatic cells
-asexual reproduction, growth, repair

13

binary fission

cell division of prokaryotes
-DNA doubles
-cell elongates
-cell splits in half

14

G (sub 0)

takes place after G1
-cells get stuck and never return to cell cycle
-cells of the central nervous system

15

cytokinesis

divides the cytoplasm of the daughter cells equally
in plant cells- cell plate
in animal cells- cleavage furrow

16

meiosis

-makes sexual reproduction possible
-Haploid (n) gametes are produced from germ cells
-nuclear division of gametes

17

zygote

1st cell formed after fertilization

18

what triggers a cell to divide?

-size
-demand
-DNA signal
-cancer/damaged DNA

19

what stops cell division?

-dna signal
-cell touching borders
-death
-demand changes
-gametes

20

hayflick limit

number of times a cell can divide before it dies
~50
telomeres get shower with each cell division, when telomeres are gone, cell dies
ends seem to unravel
why we age and die

21

telomere

compound structure at the end of a chromosome

22

homologous chromosome

-2 of each chromosome exists in each cell, except gametes
-they are identical in the types/locations of genes
-1 set is from dad and one from mom
-orientation during meiosis is random, ensuring a nice mix of each

23

fertilization

-fusion of gametes
-increases variation
-restores diploid number

24

meiosis I

(1st of 2 rounds)
-crossing over, mix up DNA
-chromosomes reduced to 23 duplicated chromosomes

25

meiosis II

turns 23 duplicated chromosomes into 23 unduplicated chromosomes

26

telomerase

-prevents unraveling and can lengthen telomere
-some cancer cells produce it
-HeLa cells from Henrietta Lax- good for research bc they’re immortal

27

stages of development

egg & sperm-> fertilization -> cleavage -> gastrulation -> organogenesis -> metamorphosis

28

cleavage

division of zygote into smaller cells every 12-24 hours

29

morula

solid ball of cells

30

blastula

hollow ball of cells

31

gastrulation

-the movement of cells to create germ layers
-starts at dorsal lip
-results in gastrula

32

deuterstomes

anus is made first

33

protostomes

mouth is made first

34

3 germ layers

ectoderm (skin, nervous system, teeth, eyes)
mesoderm (blood, skeletal, muscular, circulatory, and lymphatic system)
endoderm (the tube- lining of respiratory, excretory, reproductive and digestive sys)

35

noggin and chordin (signals examples)

induce mesoderm to change to muscle and notochord (spine)

36

homeotic selector genes

genes whose expression affects the overall body plans/sequences
ex) bithorax/antennapedia

37

organogenesis

-organ formation begins
-apoptosis and gene activation/silencing are v important

38

apoptosis

“cell suicice”- hollows out blood vessels, creates fingers and toes, necessary for proper brain development and more

39

complete metamorphosis

-egg
-larva
-pupa
-adult
(butterflies, mosquito , beetles, frogs)

40

aging

depends on genes and environment
as we age our cells are less likely to divide and more likely to die

41

cellular respiration

extracting the energy from sugars and other fuels and storing them in the bonds of ATP

42

uses of ATP

a ton! same examples are transport, metabolism, bioluminesce

43

metabolism

-all of an organisms chemical reactions
-very responsive to subtle changes (enzymes regulate)
-tends to follow in a metabolic pathway

44

anabolism + catabolism =

metabolism

45

correlation between metabolic rate and unit body mass

inverse relationship- bigger animals have a slower metabolic rate and tend to live longer

46

kinetic energy

associated with the relative motion of objects, moving objects can perform work by imparting motion to other matter
-can also show up as heat or light

47

heat/thermal energy

-kinetic energy associated w the random movement of atoms or molecules
-exergonic relations vice endotherms their body temp

48

ectotherms

rely on environment for body temp

49

endotherms

warm blooded, exergonic reactions

50

potential energy

an object not in motion that has energy bc of its location or structure, can also be chemical

51

chemical energy

-PE stored in bonds, ready for chemical release
-ATP!!

52

thermodynamics

study of energy transformations or the effects of work, heat, and energy on a system

53

1st Law of Thermodynamics

-energy can be transferred or transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed
-energy flows
-known as the principal of conservation of energy

54

what happens to energy after it has performed work?

-some lost as heat, into surroundings
-heat doesn’t really help organisms except for body temp

55

trophic level

energy chain level

56

entropy

measure of disorder or randomness
-losing energy makes world more disordered

57

2nd law of thermodynamics

-energy transfer or transformation increases entropy of the universe
-there’s an unstoppable trend towards randomization of biological systems and the universe as a whole

58

spontaneous processes

-a process that occurs without the input of energy
-energetically favorable, not necessarily quick
-increases entropy

59

free energy

energy available to do work
-excess free energy results in storage or growth
-insufficient results in loss of mass and ultimately death

60

sources of free energy

-photosynthetic orgs: the sun
-chemosynthetic orgs: small inorganic molecules
-heterotrophs: metabolize lipids, carbs, and proteins

61

Gibbs Free Energy

🔺G=🔺H- T 🔺S

🔺G= free or available energy in a system
🔺H= enthalpy or total energy in a system, usually hear
🔺S= entropy or disorder of a system
T= temp in Kelvin

62

Decrease 🔺H

decrease 🔺G

63

Increase T

decrease 🔺G

64

Increase 🔺S

decrease 🔺G

65

negative change in free energy (- 🔺G)

spontaneous, exergonic, increase enthalpy

66

increase in free energy, (+ 🔺G)

non-spontaneous, endergonic, decreases enthalpy

67

photosynthesis energy

-endergonic, decreases entropy, +🔺G, activation E = the sun

68

cell respiration energy

exergonic, increases entropy, -🔺G

69

bioenergetic

overall flow of energy in an animal
-determines nutritional needs, and is related to the animals size, activity, and environment

70

basal metabolic rate

minimum metabolic rate for basic functions such as maintenance, heart beat, respiration, etc

71

relationship between overall metabolic rate and body bass

constant and linear

72

G1

cell grows and prepares to duplicate its DNA

73

S phase (Synthesis)

chromosomes are duplicated

74

G2

2nd growth phase, cell prepared to divide, replication is checked for integrity, errors are corrected, repairs are made

75

cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs)

enzymes that that turn on or off various processes that take place in cell division, partners with cyclins

76

primary productivity

the rate at which plants and other photosynthetic organisms produce organic compounds in an ecosystem
-2 aspects: gross productivity and net productivity

77

gross productivity

the entire photosynthetic production of organic compounds in an ecosystem

78

net productivity

organic materials that remain after photosynthetic organisms in the ecosystem have used some of these compounds for their cellular energy needs (cellular respiration)