Cell Function Flashcards Preview

Biology year 10 > Cell Function > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cell Function Deck (67):
1

Diffusion

Going from high concentration to low concentration
The spreading of something more widely

2

Osmosis

Low to high concentration
Movement of water molecules across a semi permeable membrane
Passive (does not need energy)

3


Cell membrane Controls

what comes in and out of the cell, found in plant and animal cells

4

Hypotonic

Any solution with a lower concentration so the water flows into the cell

5

Hypertonic solution

When water is drawn out of the cell to the higher concentration

6

What is the role of chloroplasts?

Captures energy from the sunlight and uses it to produce food in plant cells

7

Isotonic solution

When both the cell and the outside of the cell have an equal concentration

8

Passive transport

No energy is needed to move particles

9

Active transport

Energy is needed to move particles

10

Endocytosis

Taking something into the cell

11

Exocytosis

Expelling something from the cell

12

The nucleus

Most visible organelle in a cell
Controls centre for he cell

13

Nucleolus

A dark spot in the nucleus. Stores materials that are used to make ribosomes

14

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

Membrane covered organelle
Breaks down drugs and any other substances
Packages proteins to be sent out of the cell

15

Mitochondria

Breaks down food molecules to make energy for the cell

16

Cell membrane

Covers the surface of the cell
Acts as a barrier between the inside and outside of the cell

17

Cytoplasm

Fluid inside the cell that surrounds the organelles

18

Ribosomes

Where proteins are made from amino acids

19

Golgi complex

Packages and transports materials out of the cell

20

Lysosomes

Digest food particles, wastes, cell parts and foreign materials

21

Cell wall

Only found in plant cell
It surrounds the cell membrane to provide protection

22

Chloroplasts

Only found in plant cells
Where photosynthesis takes place

23

Large vacuole

Only in plant cell
Store water

24

What are enzymes

Made of protein
Speed up reactions
Present in all living things

25

What's an excample of an enzyme

Washing powder

26

What are two factors important in enzyme reaction

Rate of reaction and temperature

27

What happens to enzymes at a low temp

They become inactive

28

Process of enzymes

Substrate ------ Enzyme ------ Product
Enzyme Splits the Substrate in two

29

Define prokaryote

Simple structure
No nucleus
Example is bacteria

30

Define eukaryotype

More complex structure
Have a nucleus
Example plant and animal cells

31

What's the difference between plant and animal cells

Plant cell has a cell wall, chloroplast and a large vacuole. Rectangle shape
Animal cell is round

32

Compare skin and muscle cells

Compared to a skin cell, a muscle cell is likely to have more...
A) Golgi bodies
B) Mitochondria
C) Cell membranes
D) Chloroplasts

33

Example of osmosis, diffusion and active transport

Osmosis- pruned fingers when your in water too long
Diffusion-air freshener in a room
Active transport-ATP

34

What occurs when the amount of substrate is increased in an enzyme

The reaction is faster

35

Label a plant and animal cell

Photos

36

Label a plant and animal cell

Photos

37

Define semi permable membrane

A substance which allows solvent molecules to pass thro but not solute molecules

38

Define catalyst and an example


a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change.

When iron and oxygen react they form rust

39

Rough ER

Transports proteins and carries out protein synthesis

40

Smooth ER

Transports lipids and carries out lipid synthesis

41

Define substrate

The substance on which the enzyme reacts

42

Define products

The result of the enzyme reaction

43

Define catalyst

A catalyst is a substance which speeds up a chemical reaction, without itself being changed by the reaction.

44

An example of a catalyst

Is an enzyme

45

Explain the lock and key theory

The lock is the enzyme and the key is the substrate. Only the correct fit for the key will make the reaction. The substrate will split in two and turn into the product

46

Active site of enzymes

The active site of the enzyme is the place where the substrate binds and at which catalysis occurs.

47

Make up of enzymes

They are made with proteins

48

Three examples of enzymes and where they are found in the human body

Food digestion-amino acids break down food in our stomach
DNA copying
Glucose transformation-To get energy from glucose

49

What is an enzyme inhibitor

An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity

50

Fluid mosaic model

The fluid-mosaic model describes the plasma membrane of animal cells. The plasma membrane that surrounds these cells has two layers.

51

Define activation energy

the minimum quantity of energy which the reacting species must possess in order to undergo a specified reaction.

52

Ph level of amylase

7 neutral

53

Ph level of pepsin

1.5

54

Define co enzymes

a non-protein compound that is necessary for the functioning of an enzyme.

55

What is the role of enzymes

Speed up reactions

56

Darwins theory of evolution

Changes that allow an organism to better adapt to its environment will help it survive and have more offspring.

57

Define autosomal recessive

A genetic condition that appears only in individuals who have received two copies of an autosomal gene, one copy from each parent.
There is a 25% chance that the child will get the disease

58

What is genetic testing

Genetic testing is a type of medical test that identifies changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins. The results of a genetic test can confirm or rule out a suspected genetic condition or help determine a person’s chance of developing or passing on a genetic disorder.

59

Define offspring

The product or result of something

60

Define progeny

descendant or the descendants of a person, animal, or plant; offspring

61

Define chromosome

A thread like structure found in the nucleus

62

Define X linked disease

any disease or disorder that is caused by there being a problem with a sex chromosome, normally X. These disorders most commonly happen with males as they only have one X chromosome, women have two and can only get the disease if both X chromosomes are infected

63

Why is haemophilia termed a sex linked, recessive gene

This gene is only found on X chromosomes. Men are more likely to get this disease as they only have one X chromosome and if that gets infected they have the disease. Where girls have two so they have a less likely chance of both X chromosomes having the disease.

64

Example of a dominate disease

Huntingtons disease

65

Example of a recessive disease

Cystics fibrosis

66

The role of ATP

Without it respiration would not happen

67

Define semi permeable membrane

Only allows certain things pass through it