Cell Injury Flashcards Preview

MCD - Cell Pathology > Cell Injury > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cell Injury Deck (21):
1

List the causes of cell injury

- Oxygen deprivation
- Chemical agents
- Infectious agents
- Immunological reactions
- Genetic defects
- Nutritional imbalances
- Physical agents
- Aging

2

List the components or mechanisms of cell injury

Cellular response to injury stimulus
Consequences of injury
Location

3

Explain cellular response to injury stimulus

Depends on
- Type of injury
- Duration of injury
- Severity of injury

4

Explain consequences of injury

Depends on
- Type of cell
- Status
- Adaptability
- Genetic makeup

5

List particularly vulnerable locations to be damaged by injury

- Protein synthesis
- Stability of genetic infrastructure
- Membrane integrity
- ATP manufacture

6

List changes associated with reversible injury

- Fatty change
- Cellular swelling

7

List changes associated with irreversible injury

- Coagulative necrosis
- Liquefactive necrosis
- Caseous necrosis
- Fat necrosis

8

Define hyperplasia

An increase in the number of cells in an organ

9

Provide examples of different types of hyperplasia

Physiological hyperplasia - Proliferative endometrium
Pathological hyperplasia - Carcinoma

10

Define hypertrophy

An increase in the size of cells and consequently an increase in the size of the organ

11

Provide examples of different types of hypertrophy

Physiological - Athletes
Pathological - Hypertension

12

Define atrophy

A shrinkage in the size of the cell or organ by the loss of cell substance

13

Provide examples of atrophy

- Pernicious anaemia associated with gastric atrophy
- Dementia associated with brain atrophy

14

Define metaplasia

A reversible change in which one adult cell type is replaced by another.

15

Provide examples of different types of metaplasia

Physiological - Change in cervix during puberty
Pathological - Acid reflex through oesophagus (Barrett's columnar-lined oesophagus)

16

Define dysplasia

Precancerous cells which show the genetic and cytological features or malignancy but not invading the underlying tissue

17

Provide an example of dysplasia

Barrett's oesophagus

18

Define apoptosis

The death of cells which occurs as a controlled part of an organisms growth or development.

19

Summarise the key features of apoptosis

- Programmed cell death
- No inflammation
- First response to try and destroy malfunctioning cells
- Requires energy

20

Define necrosis

Uncontrolled cell death that can occur in response to infection, toxins, chemicals, injury, or lack of blood supply.

21

Summarise the key features of necrosis

- Not controlled due to cause, e.g. infection, ischaemia
- Associated with inflammation
- Result of failure to achieve apoptosis or repair cell damage