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Flashcards in Cell Injury and Fate Deck (17)
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1

Two types of injury?

Lethal- produces cell death

Sublethal- produces potentially reversible injury

2

8 causes of cell injury?

- Oxygen deprivation
- Chemical agents
- Infectious agents
- Immunological reactions
- Genetic defects
- Nutritional imbalances
- Physical agents
- Aging

3

Factors affecting cellular response

Type of injury
Severity
Duration

4

4 vulnerable intracellular systems?

1. Cell membrane integrity
2. ATP generation
3. Protein synthesis
4. Integrity of genetic apparatus

5

Infarction?

Cell death due to ischaemia

6

Atrophy?

Shrinkage in cell or organ size

7

Hypertrophy?

Cells and organs becoming larger in size. Can be physiological (normal) or pathological. Caused by increased functional demand or specific hormone stimulation

8

Hyperplasia?

Increase in number of cells to increase organ size

Physiological hyperplasia can be either hormonal or compensatory. Pathological hyperplasia is due to excess hormones or growth factors

9

Metaplasia?

Reversible change in which one adult cell type is replaced by another

10

Dysplasia?

Precancerous cells which show genetic and cytological features or malignancy but not invading the underlying tissue

11

2 changes associated with reversible injury?

- Fatty change
- Cellular swelling (ballooning)

12

Necrosis?

Confluent cell death associated with inflammation

13

4 changes associated with irreversible injury

- Coagulative necrosis- structure becomes fixed and solid
- Liquefactive necrosis- where tissue becomes liquefied
- Caseous necrosis- structure becomes oozy and structureless
- Fat necrosis- digestive enzymes activated in the pancreas rather than duodenum so fat is broken down. Free fatty acids then bind to calcium to form white lumps. Can form on breasts as well

14

Necrosis vs apoptosis

Apoptosis can be physiological, is an active energy dependent process and is not associated with inflammation

15

Apoptosis?

Programmed cell death

16

5 causes of apoptosis?

- Embryogenesis
- Deletion of auto-reactive T cells in the thymus
- Hormone-dependent physiological involution
- Cell deletion in proliferation populations
- A variety of mild injurious stimuli that cause irreparable DNA damage that, in turn, triggers cell suicide pathways

17

Necroptosis

Programmed cell death with inflammation. Can be caused by viral infection