Flashcards in Cell Pathology 3 Deck (20):
1. Abnormal mass of tissue which grows autonomously and exceeds that of normal tissues.
2. Growth is uncoordinated and persists even after cessation of stimuli that initiated the growth.
What is parenchyma?
The cells that have become cancerous
What is stroma?
Tissue around cancer cells that consist of connective tissue, blood vessels, macrophages, lymphocytes.
Supportive system for cancer cells.
What 4 factors to keep in mind to differentiate benign and malignant tumours?
1. Differences in differentiation.
- Benign = relatively well differentiated
- Malignant = shows anaplasia
2. Rate of growth. Malignant tumours grow a lot faster
3. Local invasion. Benign tumours don't invade basal lamina, but malignant tumours do.
4. Metastasis. Benign tumours dont metastasise.
What are the typical mechanisms of invasion of cancers, (4)
1. Lymphatic route (commonly carcinomas - parenchymal)
2. Haematogenous (commonly sarcomas but carcinomas too)
3. Body cavities - tumour extending through pleural cavities/pericardium/peritoneum etc.
Why do tumours prefer using veins to arteries?
Veins walls are thinner
Most common cancers in men?
Most common cancers in women?
What are the 3 mechanisms of hereditary genetics causing cancer?
1. Autosomal dominant inherited cancer syndrome
2. Defective DNA repair mechanisms
3. Familial Cancer syndromes
Give some examples of carcinogens.
1. UV light
3. Naphthyl amine and vinyl chloride
6. Viruses (e.g. HPV, HBV, EBV, etc)
Non-hereditary things that can cause cancer?
Inflammation and cytokines
CANCER IS A MULTISTEP PROCESS. REQUIRES MULTIPLE MUTATIONS AT A TIME
Oncogenic viruses target who?
Young and immunosuppressed
Name 3 types of carcinogens.
1. Chemical carcinogens
2. Oncogenic viruses
4 Classes of regulatory genes.
1. Growth promoting genes
2. Growth inhibiting genes
3. Pro-apoptotic genes
4. DNA repair genes
Which gene family regulates apoptosis?
Name some clinical effects of tumour.
1. Anxiety (lumps and bumps)
2. Location related - pressure/ulceration/infection/bleeding, etc
3. Metabolic Cancer Cachexia, mediated by TNF (increased BMR, decreased fat and muscle)
4. Paraneoplastic syndromes (e.g. endocrinopathies, hypercalcaemia, acanthosis nigricans, etc.
What is the main staging system?
1. Tumour size
2. Nodes - has it spread to lymph nodes
3. Metastasis- has it metastasised?
What 3 cancers is there screening for in the UK?
3. Colorectal / Bowel