cell structure and organelles Flashcards Preview

Biology Griffiths Y12 > cell structure and organelles > Flashcards

Flashcards in cell structure and organelles Deck (38):
1

Nucleus

Controls the activity of the cell, and contains genetic information that can be passed on to the next generation

2

Nucleolus

Produces ribosomes

3

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Makes and transports lipids

4

Rough endoplasmic recticulum

Responsible for protein synthesis and the transport of proteins

5

Ribosomes

The site of protein synthesis

6

Golgi apparatus

Are used in secretion, the formation of lysosomes (membrane-bound organelles) and processing proteins

7

Lysosomes

They are digestive enzymes which breakdown waste materials including old organelles

8

Mitochondria

Form ATP which allows aerobic respiration to take place

9

Plasma (cell surface) membrane

Controls the exchange between the cell and environment. It has receptions for cell recognition and fluid, to allow endocytosis

10

Cell wall

Gives the cell shape, strength and support. It also prevents it from bursting and is fully permeable

11

Chloroplasts

Are responsible for photosynthesis, as they contain chlorophyll which is a pigment that absorbs light

12

Vacuole/tonoplast

Is a reservoir of salts, sugars, waste and pigment. It also turgor and adds support

13

Starch grain/amyloplast

Storage

14

Cytoplasm

Is the site of chemical reactions

15

Centrioles

Help with cell division (animal cells)

16

Flagella

A whip like structure that allows the cell to move

17

Cilia

Tiny hairs that move mucus back up the throat

18

Nuclear envelope

A double membrane, which protects DNA and contains nuclear pores that allow molecules to move into and out of the nucleus

19

What is the cytoskeleton

Network of fibres necessary for the shape and stability of a cell

20

What do microfilaments do

Responsible for cell movement

21

What do microtubules do

Form a scaffold like structure that determines the shape of the cell

22

What do intermediate fibres do

Five mechanical strength to cells and help maintain their integrity

23

What are histones

Proteins that form a complex with DNA called chromatin

24

Epithelial tissue

Line tubes and spaces and skin

25

Connective tissue

Bond and connect other tissues together

26

Skeletal tissue

To support and protect the body and permit movement

27

Blood tissue

Carry oxygen and food substances around body

28

Nerve tissue

Transmit and coordinate messages

29

Muscle tissue

Bring about movement

30

Epidermal tissue

Lines and protect the surface of the plant

31

Photosynthetic tissue

Feeds the plant via photosynthesis

32

Parenchyma tissue

Fills spaces inside the plant

33

Vascular tissue

Transports food and water in a plant

34

Vesicles

Transport materials inside the cell

35

Nuclear envelope

Two membranes surrounding the nucleus- have nuclear pores

36

Cytoskeleton

Supports the cell and determines shape
Controls cell movement

37

How does the Golgi apparatus work with vesicles

Protein is made by ribosomes of ER
Vesicles carrying protein join Golgi apparatus
Protein modified in the apparatus
Vesicles carrying modified protein produced by apparatus
Contents of vesicle secreted

38

Prokaryotic vs eukaryotic

Nucleus- not present/ present
DNA- circular/linear
Organelles- non membrane bound/both
Cell wall- present/chitin,cellulose or not
Ribosomes- small/large
Cytoskeleton- present
Reproduction- binary fission/asexual or sexual
Mitochondria- not present/usually present
Chloroplasts- not present/sometimes present
ER-not present/always present