Cells 1.2 Ultrastructure Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cells 1.2 Ultrastructure Deck (27)
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What is a prokaryote?

A prokaryote is a cell without a nucleus. All bacteria are prokaryotic.


What does a prokaryotic cell look like? Label 8 cell components.

Cell wall Plasma Membrane Flagellum Pili Cytoplasm Ribosomes Nucleoid DNA


What is the function of a cell wall?

Provides support and keeps the cell in the right shape and protects the cell from outside damage.


What is the function of Pilus?

Enables the cell to stick other surfaces, or other bacterial cells.


What is the function of a flagellum?

It is a "propeller" that enables the cell to move.


What is the function of plasma membrane?

The plasma membrane regulates the movement of materials in and out of the cell.


What is the function of cytoplasm?

Most made out of water. the place where most chemical reactions take place.


What is the function for ribosomes?

Produces protein.

Free ribosomes in prokaryotes are size 70S while eukaryotes are 80S


What is a nucleoid?

A nucleoid only applies for prokaryotes. It's a region where the naked DNA is located


How do prokaryotes multiply?

Prokaryotes multiply through binary fission.


How does binary fission work?

The DNA duplicates itself in the cell Then the cell elongates Finally, the cell will split into two new cells.


Name at least 8 organelles and their function of an animal cell.

Ribosomes Nucleus Golgi apparatus   Mitochondria Cytoplasm Rough endoplasmic reticulum Plasma membrane   Vesicles   Lysosomes Vacuole


Name at least 8 organelles and their functions of a plant cell.

Ribosomes Cell wall Nucleus Golgi apparatus   Mitochondria Cytoplasm Rough endoplasmic reticulum Plasma membrane   Vesicles   Lysosomes Vacuole


What are two distinct differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes?

Eukaryotes are compartmentalized while prokaryotes are not.

Prokaryotes do not have a nucleus while eukaryotes have a nucleus protecting their DNA

Only Eukaryotes have mitochondria


What is the function of a mitochondria?

It's the site for aerobic respiration. This means that converts and so produces energy.


What is the function of a golgi apparatus?

They involve the the processing and packaging of protein molecules which are using the vesicles send outside the cell.


What is the function of Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum?

The RER produces protein that is then sent to the golgi apparatus.


What is the function of a Vesicle?

small membrane bound sack containing biological molecules that can transport from the cell


What is the function of lysosomes?

Small membrane bound sack containing digestive enzymes.


What is the function of Vacuole?

Vacuoles are large membrane bound sacks used for storage ie. waste, sugar, salt, water


What do lots of Mitochondria indicate?

Many mitochondria indicate that the cell is in high demand for energy. It is a very active cell.


What do lots of chloroplasts indicate?

The cell is doing lots of photosynthesis.


What do lots of RER indicate?

Lots of RER indicates the cell is producing lots of protein to be exported.


Compare Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes.

  • Eukaryotes have a nucleus which protects the DNA mixed with protein. Prokaryotes do not have a nucleus. Their naked DNA is located in the nucleoid.
  • Eukaryotes are compartmentalized. Prokaryotes are not compartmentalized.
  • Eukaryotes have mitochondria. Prokaryotes do not have mitochondria. 
  • Eurkaryotic ribosomes are 80S. Prokaryotic ribosomes are 70S
  • Eukaryotes do not have a flagellum. Prokaryotes  have a flagellum.
  • Eukaryotes do not have pili. Prokaryotes have pili. 

List similarities as well


Compare Plant and Animal cell

  • Plant cells have chloroplasts. Animal cells do not have chloroplasts.
  • Plant cells have cell walls. Animal cells can change shape as they do not have cell walls. 
  • Plant cells have large, central vacuoles. Animal cells only sometimes have vacuoles. If they do, they are smaller and temporary. 

List similarities.  


Why are electromicroscopes better than microscopes?

They have higher resolution due to technology. 


Does protein produced in the RER or free ribosomes provide primarly for within the cell?

free ribosome