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Year 12 Cell structure > Cells > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cells Deck (55)
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1

What is the function of the Golgi apparatus?

Modifies proteins

2

What is the function of the mitochondria?

Release energy/ATP by aerobic respiration

3

What is the function of the ribosomes?

Protein synthesis

4

What is the function of the chloroplast?

Photosynthesis

5

Name 2 structures found in the nucleus

Chromosomes and nucleolus/nucleoli

6

What is the function of the cell membrane?

Controls which substances enter and leave the cell

7

What is the function of the Golgi vesicles?

Transports chemicals across the Golgi apparatus or to the cell membrane.

8

What is the function of the lysosome?

Hydrolyses dead or damaged organelles.

9

What is the function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum?

Makes and transports proteins

10

What is the function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?

Makes and transports steroids

11

What is the function of the cell wall?

Rigid outer covering to the plant cell. Supports the plant cell.

12

What is the function of the vacuole?

Stores cell sap. Keeps the cell turgid.

13

The epithelium cells of the small intestine have microvilli on them. What is their function?

Increase surface area for absorption of digested food.

14

What is a tissue?

A group of similar specialised cells that perform a particular function.

15

What is an organ?

A group of tissues which perform a particular function

16

What is a system?

A group of organs which perform a particular function

17

Which are larger? Prokaryotic cells or eukaryotic cells?

Eukaryotic cells

18

Give three ways in which prokaryotic cells are different to eukaryotic cells

No membrane-bound organelles eg mitochondria
No nucleus
Smaller ribosomes
Cell wall made of glycoprotein not cellulose

19

Give 3 features that are found in prokaryotic cells and not eukaryotic cells

One or more plasmids
A capsule surrounding the cell
One or more flagella

20

Give three features found in viruses

Genetic material
Capsid
Attachment protein

21

Viruses are acellular. What does this mean?

Not made of cells

22

Give 2 advantages of using a light microscope rather than an electron microscope

Can see living cells
Cell movement can be observed
Very few artefacts
Can see natural colour

23

Give two advantages of using an electron microscope rather than a light microscope

Higher resolution
Higher magnification

24

Why does an electron microscope give better resolution than a light microscope?

Uses a shorter wavelength of the electromagnetic spectrum

25

Give an advantage of a scanning electron microscope over a transmission electron microscope

3D images vs 2D images
Observe the surface of a structure

26

Give an advantage of a transmission electron microscope over a scanning electron microscope

Higher resolution.
Observe internal structures in the cell

27

Why are cells dead when viewed under an electron microscope?

High energy electrons damage cells
Vacuum needed
Cells dehydrated

28

What does magnification mean?

How large the image is compared to real life

29

What does resolution mean?

The smallest distance below which two discrete objects will be seen as one.

30

What is the formula for calculating magnification?

Magnification = size of image/size of real object