Cells Flashcards Preview

Year 8 Science > Cells > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cells Deck (40):
1

Fill in the blanks: _____ reproduction occurs when offspring are produced without uniting a sperm and egg.

asexual

2

Fill in the blanks: ________ is a form of asexual reproduction that occurs when a small cell "pinches" off from a large cell.

Budding

3

Fill in the blanks: _____________is a form of asexual reproduction that occurs when new plants grow from the roots, stem, or leaves of other plants.

vegetative propagation

4

Fill in the blanks: ________________ is a form of asexual reproduction that occurs when one cell "pinches" into two identical cells.

binary fission

5

Fill in the blanks: _______ and ______ both use budding for reproduction.

Yeast and hydra

6

Fill in the blanks: ________ can reproduce by binary fission.

Bacteria

7

Fill in the blanks: Asexual reproduction results in offspring that are _______, genetically identical to each other.

Clones

8

Fill in the blanks: ______ reproduction occurs when a sperm is united with an egg.

Sexual

9

Fill in the blanks: ___________ or growth is the process by which an organism is able to grow back a lost or broken body part.

Regeneration

10

Fill in the blanks: _________ and _________ are organisms that are able to reproduce through the process of regeneration.

Sea starts and planarian

11

Fill in the blanks: _________ is a hormone associated with male sexual development and reproduction.

Testosterone

12

Fill in the blanks: _______ and _______ are hormones associated with female sexual development and reproduction.

estrogen and progesterone

13

Fill in the blanks: _______ the organ that allows nutrients and oxygen to pass from the mother's blood to the fetus.

Placenta

14

Fill in the blanks: _______ the unborn, developing young of an animal or human during the later stages of pregnancy.

Fetus

15

Fill in the blanks: _______ an organism in the early stages of development.

Embryo

16

Fill in the blanks: _______ the cell that results from the joining of the egg and sperm.

Zygote

17

Fill in the blanks: ______ the process that divides the cell's nucleus into two, each with a complete set of DNA from the parent cell.

Mitosis

18

Fill in the blanks: ______ the process that results in the production of sex cells (sperm and egg)

Meiosis

19

Fill in the blanks: ______ the process that combines the nucleus of a sperm with the nucleus of an egg cell.

Fertilisation

20

Fill in the blanks: ______ include the sex cells: sperm and egg.

Gametes

21

Define: chlorophyll

A green pigment found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and some bacteria

22

Define: organelle

The tiny structures within cells that carry out a specific function within the cell

23

Define: products

The elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction.

24

Define: reactants

A starting material in a chemical reaction

25

Define: stomata

A microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange between the environment and the interior of the plant.

26

Define: photosynthesis

A process used by plants and other autotrophs to capture light and energy and use it to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates, such as sugars and starches.

27

Define: chloroplast

An organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs

28

Define: cellular respiration

Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen. Takes place in the mitochondria.

29

Define: mitochondria

An organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.

30

Define: element

A pure substance made of only one kind of atom

31

Define: compound

A substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds

32

Define: cell wall

A rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms.

33

Define: cell

the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms

34

Define: xylem

Nonliving vascular tissue that carries water and dissolved minerals from the roots of a plant to its leaves

35

Define: phloem

Living vascular tissue that carries sugar and organic substances throughout a plant

36

Define: cell membrane

A cell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell.

37

Define: cytoplasm

All the material of the cell between the cell membrane and the nucleus

38

Define: nucleus

Contains DNA which controls how the body grows and changes.

39

Define: chromosome

Made of materials including DNA carry instructions for the cells to do their jobs

40

Define: vacuole

In cells they store and break down materials, in plant cells they may store water