Cells and organelles Flashcards Preview

MCD Cells > Cells and organelles > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cells and organelles Deck (21):
1

what constitutes a cell?

cells consist of various organelles and a membrane

2

what are the sizes of cells found in the body?

typical cell - 25µm
nerve cell - 10cm
muscle cells are bigger

3

what is the function of the nucleus?

contains the majority of the cell's genetic material

4

what is the function of the nucleolus

site of synthesis of ribosomal subunits

5

what is the function of the nuclear envelope

keeps nucleoplasm separate from cytoplasm

6

what is the function of the mitochondrion

production of ATP

7

what is the function of the RER

synthesis and export of proteins and glycoproteins

8

what is the function of the SER

production of hormones and lipids

9

what is the function of the ribosome

protein synthesis

10

what is the function of the golgi apparatus

- modifying, sorting and packaging proteins
- transport of lipids
- synthesis of lysosomes

11

what is the function of the secretory granule

where neuropeptides/hormones are packaged and stored for secretion

12

what is the function of the plasma membrane

regulation of which molecules can exit/enter the cell

13

what is the function of the cytoskeletal components

important structural framework for the movement of organelles around the cytoplasm

14

what are the predominant types of molecules found in a cell?

- soluble proteins
- ions
- sugars
- nucleotides
- amino acids
- mRNA
- tRNA
- lipids
- peptides

(all dissolved in the cytoplasm)

15

define the essential characteristics of prokaryotic cells

- no membrane bound organelles
- may have photosynthetic pigments
- may have flagella for locomotion or pili for adhesion
- come in multiple shapes

16

describe the multiple shapes that prokaryotic cells can come in

- cocci: round
- bacilli: rods
- spirilla: helical cells

17

define the essential characteristics of eukaryotic cells

- membrane bound organelles, resulting in a higher degree of organisation
- no flagella/pilli

18

how important is the movement of molecules and organelles within cells, and of cells themselves?

essential

19

what is cancer?

a disorder of cell division

20

what mutations can cause cancer?

- switch on of oncogenes
- switch off of tumour suppressor genes
- loss of correction mechanism on DNA copying
- loss of control keeping cell within tissue boundaries (metastasis)

21

what helps cancer develop?

- ability to evade body defence mechanisms
- ability to recruit blood vessels to growing tumour
- ability to migrate into blood stream/lymph vessels