Cellular Responses to Stress and Injury Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cellular Responses to Stress and Injury Deck (74):
1

Reversible functional and structural responses to more severe physiologic stresses and some pathologic stimuli allowing the cell to survive and continue to function

Cellular adaptation

2

Results when cells are stressed so severely, they are no longer able to adapt

Cell injury

3

End result of progressive cell injury

Cell death

4

Type of cell death that occurs after such abnormal stresses as ischemia and chemical injury

Necrosis

5

T/F: Necrosis is always pathologic

True

6

Type of cell death that occurs due to activation of an internally controlled suicide program

Apoptosis

7

Adaptive cellular response triggered by nutrient deprivation

Autophagy

8

Results from calcium deposition at sites of cell death

Pathologic calcification

9

T/F: Hyperplasia cannot occur simultaneously with hypertrophy

False

10

Increased functional capacity of a tissue when needed

Hormonal hyperplasia

11

Increased tissue mass after damage or partial resection

Compensatory hyperplasia

12

Differentiate hyperplasia from hypertrophy

Hyperplasia - happens in cells capable of dividing; results in an inc. in the mass of organ

Hypertrophy - happens in cells which are not capable of dividing; results in an inc. in size of the organ

13

Most important biochemical pathway involved in physiologic hypertrophy

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway

14

Induced by many growth factors and vasoactive agents and thought to be more important in pathologic hypertrophy

G-protein coupled receptors

15

Associated with reinduction of ANF gene expression

Myocardial hypertrophy

16

Most common setting for atrophy to occur

Aging

17

Generalized atrophy

Malnutrition

18

A reversible change in which one differentiated cell type is replaced by another cell type

Metaplasia

19

T/F: Metaplasia results from a change in the phenotype of an already differentiated cell type

False

20

Result of a reprogramming of stem cells that are known to exist in normal tissues, or of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells present in connective tissue

Metaplasia

21

Most common metaplasia

Columnar to squamous

22

Disordered cellular growth and maturation

Dysplasia

23

Dysplasia occurs most often in?

Hyperplastic squamous epithelium and in areas of squamous metaplasia

24

T/F: Dysplastic cells are not autonomous and with intervention, the tissue may still revert to normal

True

25

Hallmarks of cell injury

Dec. oxidative phosphorylation
Cellular swelling due to changes in ion concentration and water influx
Alterations in organelles (mitochondria and cytoskeleton)

26

Cellular response to injurious stimuli depends on?

Nature, duration, and severity of the injury

27

Consequences of cll injury depends on?

Type, state and adaptability

28

Fundamental cause of necrotic cell death

ATP depletion

29

Increased intracellular calcium levels result in the induction of apoptosis by?

Direct activation of caspases and by increasing mitochondrial permeability

30

Appears whenever cells are incapable of maintaining ionic and fluid homeostasis

Cellular swelling

31

T/F: Hydropic swelling results in an increased number of organelles

False

32

Occurs in hypoxic injury and various forms of toxic or metabolic injury

Fatty change

33

Manifestation of fatty change

Lipid vacuoles in cytoplasm

34

Features of cell injury under light microscope

Cytoplasmic eosinophilia
Nuclear degeneration

35

Nuclear shrinkage and creased basophilia

Pyknosis

36

Pyknotic nucleus breaks up into smaller fragments scattered around the cytoplasm

Karyorrhexis

37

Fading of basophilia of the chromatin due to loss of DNA because of enzymatic degradation by endonucleases

Karyolysis

38

T/F: Coagulative necrosis is denaturation of both structural proteins and enzymes with proteolysis

False

39

Type of necrosis in TB

Caseous necrosis

40

Cell death characterized by dominant enzyme digestion

Liquefactive necrosis

41

Associated with secondary bacterial infection of already ischemic tissues

Gangrenous necrosis

42

Diabetic foot is which type of gangrenous necrosis?

Dry gangrene

43

Bacterial infection superimposed on coagulative necrosis

Dry gangrene

44

Bacterial infection superimposed on liquefactive necrosis

Wet gangrene

45

Process of combination of free fatty acids with calcium resulting to chalky white areas

Fat saponification

46

Which type of necrosis occurs in acute pancreatitis?

Fat necrosis

47

Occurs when there is deposition of Ag-Ab complexes in the walls if arteries

Fibrinoid necrosis

48

Which type of necrosis occurs in vasculitis?

Fibrinoid necrosis

49

Fragments of apoptotic cells containing portion of its nucleus and cytoplasm

Apoptotic bodies

50

Most characterized feature of apoptosis

Chromatin condensation

51

Fragmentation into apoptotic bodies containing cytoplasmic organelles with or without nuclear fragments

Blebbing

52

Best known death receptors

TNFR1 and Fas ( CD95)

53

Anti-apoptotic proteins

BCL2, BCL-XL, MCL1

54

Pro-apoptotic proteins

BAX, BAK

55

Act as sensors of cellular stress and damage and regulate the balance between anti- and pro-apoptotic proteins

Arbiters of apoptosis

56

Arbiters of apoptosis

BAD, BIM, Puma, Noxa

57

T/F: Both anti- and pro-apoptotic proteins have 4 BH domains

True

58

Abnormal accumulations of triglycerides within parenchymal cells

Steatosis

59

Steatosis is often seen in which organ?

Liver

60

Smooth muscle cells and macrophages within the intimal layer of the aorta and large arteries which are filled with lipid vacuoles

Foam cells

61

Intracellular accumulation of cholesterol within macrophages

Xanthomas

62

Lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations affecting an enzyme involved in cholesterol trafficking, resulting in cholesterol accumulation

Niemann-pick disease, type C

63

Focal accumulation of cholesterol-laden macrophages in the lamina propria of the gallbladder

Cholesterolosis

64

Marked accumulation of newly synthesized immunoglobulins that may occur in the RER

Russell bodies

65

Abnormal proteins deposit primarily in extracellular spaces

Amyloidosis

66

An alteration within cells or in extracellular space that gives a homogeneous, glassy, pink appearance in sections stained with H&E

Hyaline change

67

Most common exogenous pigment

Carbon

68

Wear and tear pigment

Lipofuscin

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Appearance when large amounts of lipofuscin is present

Brown atrophy

70

Pigment that accumulates in tissues when local or systemic excess of iron is present

Hemosiderin

71

Condition where unconjugated bilirubin is found in the brain and may lead to death

Kernicterus

72

Type of calcification which occurs in the absence of derangements in calcium metabolism

Dystrophic calcification

73

Type of calcification which occurs in normal tissue during hypercalcemia

Metastatic hypercalcemia

74

Disease of premature aging

Werner's syndrome