Cerebellum Patho Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cerebellum Patho Deck (23):
1

Cerebellar nuclie w/in each cerebellar hemisphere

Denate nucleus

Interposed nuclei - emboliform, globase

Fastigial nuclei

2

Info from the cerebellum is used to

Plan and program voluntary movement, skilled learned movement

3

Cerebellum anatomy and function

Integrated structure critical for environmental adaptations

Compares ongoing movement w/ motor command from cortex

4

Flocculonodular lobe received most of its info from

vestibular nuclei

5

Flocculonodular lobe primary role

Regulate balance, influence eye movements needed for visual tracking

6

Peripheral feedback to cerebellum by

Muscle spindles
GTO
Joint and cutaneous receptors
Vestibular apparatus
Eyes and ears

7

Closed loop system

Control system employing feedback which is used as a reference for correctness, a computation of error and subsequent correction in order to maintain a desired state

8

Cerebellum is also Feed forward control

Program voluntary movements based on memory

Performs predictive compensatory modifications of reflexes in preparation for movement w/ input from basal ganglia

Vital to anticipatory muscle activity

9

Cerebellum as Open loop system

Preprogrammed instructrtions to effector that does not use feedback info and error detection processes

Stereotyped movement and rapid short duration - do not allow sufficient time for feeedback and are controlled by open loop system

Originates from motor program, memory or preprogrammed pattern of info

10

If cerebellum is damaged

Learned motor program cannot be used —> movement guided by feedback systems through the cerebrum similar to learning a new skill —> slow and uncoordinated —> inability to adapt to minor changes

11

Cerebellar - disturbed balanced/equilibrium

Difficulty maintaining upright posture

Visual compensation is not effective

12

Cerebellum - hypotonicity

Decrease in excitation from deep cerebellar nuclei to regions of the brain that excite alpha and gamma motor neurons

DTRs typically normal

13

Cerebellum - dysmetria

Inability to judge distance or range of movement

Deficit in reaching a target effectively

14

Dysdiadochokinesia

Inability to perform rapidly alternating movements

Movements are irregular w/ a rapid loss of range and rhythm, esp as speed is increased

15

Cerebellar movement decomposition (dyssynergia)

Movement performed in its component parts, instead of one coordinated movement

16

Asynergia

Inability to associate muscle groups together for complex movements

17

Ataxia

Lack of order- uncoordinated movement

Most often associated w/ disturbances of gait, wide BOS, steps are irregular in direction and distance

Initiation of LE movement may start slowly then extremity may unexpectedly be rapidly flung to hit floor

Arms usually head outward to improve balance in high garud position

18

Asthenia

Generalized muscle weakness can be associated w/ cerebellar lesions

Muscle strength on involved side can be reduced by 50%

19

Tremor

Involuntary oscillatory movement resulting alternating contractions of opposing muscle groups

20

Intention tremor

Occur during voluntary movements, tend to increase as extremity reaches its intended goal

21

Cerebellar dysfunctions - speech disturbances

Rhythm of speech is changed

Syllables are slow and accents mistplaced

Grammar and word selection are not involved

22

Cerebellar dysfunction - control of eye movements and gaze

Inability to move eyes accurately to a target in the periphery, including overshooting and undershooting the eyes when attempting look at a target

Saccades are either too large or too small

Systagmus is rhythmic, quick oscillatory movement of eyes

23

Cerebellar dysfunction management

Equipment/ orthotic eval
Functional training
Gait training
Balance and coordination training
Family training